There are several countries in the world and most countries have their own language but they are taken lots of words from their neighboring countries likewise the English language is a language that has debts lots of its words from different countries. All these words are called Loan words as well as Borrowing words. In English, these words have come from French, Latin, Greek, Spanish, American language, and Italian. Words that have come into the English language from French are known as French Loan words.
The history of the English language is usually divided into four significant periods. It can be classified both on the basis of linguistic differences and on the basis of Historical events that influenced the development of the English language.
|1||Old English||450 – 1100 AD||Celtic, Latin, Greek, Anglo-Saxan (Germane)|
|2||Middle English||1100 – 1500||Scandinavian and French|
|3||Early Modern English||1500 – 1700||French, Latin, Greek|
|4||Modern English||1700 – Present||Spanish, American, Italian, etc.|
English has been influenced by many languages such as French Latin Greek and Scandinavian. The Norman people brought the French language into English literature. English has been influenced by the French loan words, mainly in Middle English and early modern English period. French loan words are different from the other loan from the same period. They refer to the law, arts, science, food, medicine, agriculture, sport, fashion, etc. Because of its extent, it is one of the most interesting foreign influences on the English language.
According to different sources 45% of all English words a French origin. French loan words began to enter the English language during the period of Middle English, but the evidence in writing can be found in Early modern English. The loan words were recorded long after they came in use because it took some time before they entered standard English. French loan words are varied and simple as opposed to Latin and Scandinavian loan words. They exist around 7000 French words in the English language at the present.
Example of French loan words in English:
◽ Some English words that came from French society that is connected to law such as advocate, bail, lawyer, Court, judgment, client, punishment, jail, plea, etc.
◽ There are several words related to science and technology which comes from French example such as physics, practical, experiment, guns, missile, bullet, bomb, gravity, motion, etc.
◽ There are lots of words in the English language related to education that has come from French society such as uniform, classroom, language, literature, University, certificate, Degree, College, tuition, etc.
◽ There are several words connected to art, music, and literature which come from French society such as Dance, singer, stage, guitar, piano, audience, poem, poet, prose, poetry, drama, novel, essay, period, era, novelist, etc.
◽ There are several words connecting to food and medicine that have come from French society such as rice, bread, grain, field, vegetables, dinner, breakfast, food, tea, sugar, tea, leaves, medicine, doctor, patients, etc.
◽ Words related to agriculture that came from French society such as plant, tree, water, field, worker, work, etc.
◽ There are following words which connected to Fashion and decoration have come from French society as cream, shoes, powder, sleepers, mirror, comb, cosmetics, etc.
Thus now we can say that we cannot even imagine the English language without French loan words. Even today after so many years we can still see the evidence of French influence in English. Besides there above-mentioned words, there are also many words related to Geography, military, terms, clothing, novel, and titles that come from French in English. So, it is clear that French loan words have had a significant impact on the development of the English language. There is no doubt that to say that the English language is indebted to there above-mentioned French loan words.