Critical Analysis

The Prologue to The Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer

Prologue to The Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer
Prologue to The Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer

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Hayavadana By Girish Karnad

Hayavadana By Girish Karnad | Hayavadana Themes & Analysis

Some Important Characters

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The First Century after Beatrice

The First Century After Beatrice Summary And Analysis

The First Century after Beatrice
The First Century after Beatrice

Introduction

The First Century After Beatrice is a thought-provoking novel by the Lebanese-French writer Amin Maalouf. It was published in 1992. This Novel is written in French Language but it is translated in English by Dorothy S. Blair. The story is set in the near future, where a pharmacological company, tries to make a drug, by which parents can choose to only have sons.

The novel explores the consequences of a world where that bean can ensure the birth of a male infant. This drug led to a drastic decline in the female population. The story is told from the first-person point of view of an entomologist. This novel explores the potential consequences of our choices. It is a warning about the dangers of gender bias and the importance of gender equality.

About Amin Maalouf

Amin Maalouf was born in Beirut, Lebanon on February 25, 1949. He is a renowned author and journalist who has gained international recognition for his works. Although his native language is Arabic, he writes in French, and his works have been translated into over 40 languages. Maalouf’s writing often reflects his multicultural background, addressing themes of identity, displacement, and the clash of cultures.

He wrote various Fiction and Non-Fiction Books. His famous Fiction books are Leo Africanus, Samarkand, The Gardens of Light, The First Century after Beatrice, The Rock of Tanios, and Ports of Call, etc. Of his several works of nonfiction, The Crusades Through Arab Eyes is probably the best known. He received the Prix Goncourt in 1993 for his novel The Rock of Tanios, as well as the 2010 Prince of Asturias Award for Literature.

Summary and Analysis Of The First Century after Beatrice

The narrator was a young French Entomologist. He discovers a Scarab Beans. It is claimed the beans, derived from the scarab beetle, have magic powers; specifically, the power to guarantee the birth of a male infant. He discovers the incidence of female birth has become increasingly rare. He is left with no doubt that the world has entered into a critical phase of its history. He is trying to understand the consequences of the bean, which has led to a drastic imbalance in the male-to-female birth ratio.

Entomologists came from Cairo (the Capital Of Egypt). Clarence was a young beautiful Journalist who visit Entomologist for an interview about Egyptologists. He likes Clarence after the first meeting. After some meetings, they quickly realized that they had a lot in common. They both loved nature and they were both passionate about their work. They started dating and soon fell in love. They got married.

They trying to have a child. They have been trying for years, but Clarence has been unable to conceive. The drug is said to help women conceive, and it is especially effective for women who have been unable to conceive in the past.

Entomologists and Clarence decide to try the drug, and they are thrilled when Anne becomes pregnant. They name their daughter Beatrice.

Beatrice grows up to be a bright and beautiful young woman. She is also very intelligent, and she is determined to make a difference in the world. She studies hard in school, and she eventually goes on to become a scientist.

Beatrice’s work as a scientist leads her to study the effects of the drug that leads to born male infants. She learns that the drug has had a devastating impact on society. The male-to-female birth ratio has become so imbalanced that there are now only a few women for every man. This has led to a society that is dominated by men, and it has had a negative impact on women’s rights.

Beatrice is determined to change things. She starts a movement to raise awareness of the dangers of the drug, and she works to promote gender equality. She eventually succeeds in getting the drug banned, and she helps to create a more just and equitable society.

As the narrator’s daughter, Beatrice becomes increasingly concerned about the future of humanity. He sees how the drug has led to the rise of a society that is dominated by men, and he fears that this will ultimately lead to the destruction of the planet.

The First Century after Beatrice” novel is set in the near future, but it is not too far removed from our own reality. The technology that is used in the novel is already being developed, and the social and political issues that are explored are already present in our world.

The novel is told from the first-person point of view of the Entomologist. This gives the reader a unique perspective on the events of the novel. Entomologist is a complex and sympathetic character, and his journey is one that is both personal and research about Scarab Bean.

The novel is a warning about the dangers of gender bias. It shows how gender bias can lead to inequality, injustice, and even violence. The novel is a call for action, and it urges readers to work to create a more just and equitable world.

Maalouf’s novel explores the consequences of a world where female births become rare due to a mysterious drug. The people want to bear male infants because they think that man’s working capacity and power maintain the generation of the future. Females got kidnapped because of the male population rise and decreased population of girls.

 The story follows the narrator, a French entomologist, and his lover, Beatrice, an English historian, as they witness the social, political, and ecological upheavals caused by the gender imbalance.

The novel is a compelling blend of science fiction, historical fiction, and romance, as it portrays the personal and global effects of a dystopian scenario.

The First Century after Beatrice” novel raises important questions about the value of human life, the role of women in society, the ethics of biotechnology, and the impact of environmental degradation. The author uses his background as a Lebanese-French journalist and historian to create a realistic and diverse setting, spanning from Paris to Cairo, and from India to Brazil. The novel also shows violence because of the increase in gender inequality.

The novel is written in a clear and elegant style, with vivid descriptions and engaging dialogues. The characters are well-developed and complex, each with their own motivations and dilemmas. The plot is fast-paced and suspenseful, with twists and turns that keep us hooked until the end.

Conclusion

“The First Century after Beatrice” has received critical acclaim for its thematic depth, masterful storytelling, and exploration of complex existential questions. Amin Maalouf‘s ability to seamlessly blend history, philosophy, and personal introspection, along with his elegant prose style, has made this novel compelling and thought-provoking.

Thus we can say that “The First Century after Beatrice” novel spans several decades, from the late 20th century to the early 22nd century. It depicts a dystopian scenario where women are reduced to a minority and subjected to violence, exploitation, and oppression. The novel also explores the themes of gender, identity, culture, religion, and history. It raises questions about the value of human life, the importance of males and females in society, the role of science and technology, and the responsibility of individuals and nations in shaping the future of humanity.

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The Sun Rising By John Donne

The Sun Rising By John Donne | The Sunne Rising Critical Analysis

The Sun Rising By John Donne
The Sun Rising By John Donne

Introduction

The Sunne Rising, also known as The Sun Rising is a metaphysical poem as well as a love poem set in the speaker’s bedroom. The poem was written by John Donne who was a great English essayist, Poet, and philosopher of the 18th Century. He is also known as the founder of Metaphysical poetry. John Donne’s other famous metaphysical poems are The Flea, The Good Morrow, and Holly Sonnets.

structure Of The Poem

            Present Poem The Sun Rising is a thirty lines poem with three stanzas containing ten lines. With irregular line length and regular rhyme scheme of ABBACDCDEE. The meter is also varied.

Themes Of The Poem

The Sun Rising poem revolves around the themes of love and appreciation. Love has never-ending power, and it is not bound to any restrictions of nature. The poet is addressing the sun directly. Love and friendship are not bound by the motion of the sun. He praises and accolades the beauty of his beloved.

The Sun Rising Poem Analysis

            In the first stanza poem has a dramatic situation, the same as most often in his poems. The speaker gets angry with the rising sun and tells the sun not to disturb him and his beloved in making love. The tone of the poem is striking and angry. The poet addresses the sun by saying – you are a fool, busy and uncontrollable.

When we (means lovers) are in bed why you disturbed us through your rays and peep into my room? Here poet raises a question. Do you want lovers to go according to your motion? No, and never, love is associated with such barriers. Go and wake up late school boys, huntsman and farmers go to work. Poet further says:

“Love all alike, no season knows nor clime;
 Nor hours, days, months, which are the rays of time.”

            Here poet means love is not bound by climate and neither seasons nor it is connected with the pieces of times, hours days, and months.

            The second stanza is about the wholehearted appreciation of the beloved. He can fade the sun into clouds in one second by closing his eyes but he does not lose sight of his beloved. The poet exaggerated in the fifth line by saying my beloved eyes are shiner than you. He says whether east India or west all the things are laying with me. In order to enjoy your go and come yesterday.

            In the third stanza, the poet continues the direct address towards to the sun. He says my beloved is my state and I am the king of that state. This means the poet firmly says that he is like a king as he possesses the beauty and true love of his beloved. For him, all the honors and wealth are nothing in comparison to his beloved.

Pitying the sun the speaker says the sun is fully not happy as the loving is, shine its job is to keep the world warm, and in its old age it wants easier work, so all it has to do is to shine on the speaker’s bed where his beloved is lying. This way his job is easily fulfilled as for the speaker his beloved is the world and by shining on the bed I it is shining on the world, which we can understand by these lines:

“Shine here to us and thou art everywhere;
 This bed thy center is these walls thy sphere;”

             Poet means to say for the sun their bed is the center of the world and the walls of the room are the orbit of the Sun.

Conclusion

            Thus in the poem, The Sun Rising the poet highlights the importance and significance of Love. Love is more powerful and brighter than the Sun. Although John Donne is not a romantic poet. His poems can be divided into two groups. Love poems as well as divine or holy poems. The present poem The Sunne Rising is the perfect example of a Love Poem.

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Varsha Singh

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Partition By W. H. Auden

Partition By W H Auden Analysis | Partition Poem Analysis

Partition By W. H. Auden
Partition By W. H. Auden

Introduction

          The poem Partition by W. H. Auden deals with the historical event of the partition of the sub-continent into India and Pakistan. Cyril Radcliffe parted the subcontinent on the idea of outdated maps and incorrect census inside a brief interval of seven weeks. It is a political and historical poem. The poem was first published in Auden’s 1969 collection City Without walls.

About Poet

            W. H. Auden was an English poet, playwright, critic, and liberalist of the 20th century. He exerted a major influence on poetry. As a poet, Auden was much influenced by the poetry of Thomas Hardy, William Blake, and G. M. Hopkins. Most of Auden’s poems are based on love, politics, social concern, religion, and personal morals.

The Poet published over 20 collections of poetry during his lifetime and became best known for his writing style and technique in writing. Among his world-famous poems included – The Unknown Citizen, September 1: 1989, Autumn Song, Night Mail, If I Could tell You, and The Shield of Achilles. Awards and honors which Auden got as achievements in his life are – Bollinger Prize, National Book Award, and Pulitzer Prize.

Auden Criticise in the Poem

            The poem Partition is a criticism of the method of Partition and a criticism of Cyril Radcliffe. Partition was a job that was heroic and of an epic dimension but it was done away in such haste, such a short time, with such carelessness that resulted in the catastrophe, the tragedy that is called partition. This act of partition was done in such a way as to split a piece of log. Around 12 million people displace and millions were left homeless. The trains through which migration was done were so full and there was hardly space to breathe in it. Over one million were killed on both sides of the border.

            Cyril Radcliffe arrived in India on July 8, 1947. He has never seen the subcontinent before, never knew the geography, never knew the population of statistics and still, he was given the task of splitting the subcontinent into two parts – India and Pakistan. This was an epic dimension task but it was done in such haste, and carelessness that it resulted in a monumental tragedy.

Themes of The Partition

            The violence and Hubris of British colonialism, Partition are the main themes of the poem. Cyril Radcliffe’s decision resulted in mass migration and widespread violence as countless Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs were forced to seek safety in religious majorities on the other side of new boundaries. With this context, the poem highlights the devastating effects of British Colonialism.

Analysis Of The Poem

            The poem starts with the line that Radcliffe was unbiased when he arrived in India. Radcliffe was unaware of India’s cultural traditions and the communal tension prevalent in India. Radcliff is a person who had never come to India and now he is called for partition. He was a complete stranger. Auden says that partition was among people, who were fanatically different, they had a different diet and different God.

Radcliff was told in London that we have no time left for mutual reconciliation and rational debate and that this line will be not drawn. The decision had already been taken now. You are being called to fulfill the formalities. Two sides can’t come together. The solution lies in their separation only. It means that in Radcliffe’s mind, it was already settled that there is no chance left of stopping this partition.

            Auden mentions that letter which was written by Lord Mountbatten to Radcliffe, in the letter evidence can be seen that Mountbatten doesn’t want to see Radcliff. Even he had given authority to Radcliff to divide and draw the line himself. For the help, they provided accommodation to Sir Radcliffe and two Hindu judges, and two Muslim judges to seek advice were given to him. The final decision rested with Radcliffe.

            Next Auden says that Sir Radcliffe was living in a lonely mansion under police protection. Because the police were scared that orthodox people of any side can attack him or assassinate him. He got down to work and the task was of setting the destiny of millions of people living on both sides just by tracing a single line of land. People had to leave their sources of income school houses except they were out of their land and their state was in the hands of the Radcliffe line.

            Auden criticizes the way partition was done because the maps given to Sir Radcliffe were out of date and even the census was also incorrect due to this he faced many difficulties. But Auden mentions that there was no time to verify and examine maps for the census.

            Radcliffe was setting the faith of millions of people with incorrect defaulted papers.

            In the month of June and July, India’s weather is very hot so Auden talks about the climate of the Indian subcontinent. Due to the hot climate, a bout of dysentery kept him constantly in the toilet. As Redcliffe came from England it was difficult for him to adjust to India’s climate. But he has given a certain time of 5 to 7 weeks in which the frontiers were to be decided and India was to be divided for good or something bad to come. It means that Radcliffe was facing some health issues and in spite of that, he was told to finish that work. 

            In the last stanza Auden depicts that Radcliffe goes back to England and life any other lawyer he forgets the case. He quickly forgets what he has done in India and he moves on in his life. He said in a club and told his friends that he will never visit India because he is afraid that he might be shoot by anyone.

Conclusion

            Thus, Auden used very simple and direct language in the poem- “Partition” which is all about how unjust the partition of India was an unknown person was called an unknown land to draw a line that will decide the fate of millions of people and outdated information and pressure unrooted many people from their housed and decide their faith and death.

Varsha Singh

Partition Poem By W. H. Auden

Unbiased at least he was when he arrived on his mission,
Having never set eyes on the land he was called to partition
Between two peoples fanatically at odds,
With their different diets and incompatible gods.
“Time,” they had briefed him in London, “is short. It’s too late
For mutual reconciliation or rational debate:
The only solution now lies in separation.
The Viceroy thinks, as you will see from his letter,
That the less you are seen in his company the better,
So we’ve arranged to provide you with other accommodation.
We can give you four judges, two Moslem and two Hindu,
To consult with, but the final decision must rest with you.”

Shut up in a lonely mansion, with police night and day
Patrolling the gardens to keep the assassins away,
He got down to work, to the task of settling the fate
Of millions. The maps at his disposal were out of date
And the Census Returns almost certainly incorrect,
But there was no time to check them, no time to inspect
Contested areas. The weather was frightfully hot,
And a bout of dysentery kept him constantly on the trot,
But in seven weeks it was done, the frontiers decided,
A continent for better or worse divided.

The next day he sailed for England, where he could quickly forget
The case, as a good lawyer must. Return he would not,
Afraid, as he told his Club, that he might get shot.

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