English Literature

Love Song Of J Alfred Prufrock

The Love Song Of J Alfred Prufrock | Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock Summary

Love Song Of J Alfred Prufrock
Love Song Of J Alfred Prufrock

Introduction

          The Love Song Of J. Alfred Prufrock was T. S. Eliot’s first important publication and it has often been called the first masterpiece of Modernism in English Literature. Through this poem, Eliot presents the despair and passivity of a middle-aged man, Alfred J Prufrock. The poem was most probably written between 1910 and 1911.

T. S. Eliot originally entitled this poem Prufrock Among the Women. He changed the title to The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock before publishing the poem in a poetry magazine in 1915 (Ezra Pound). The pome is typically not of the 20th century but of all ages. It deals with the emotional frustration and despair, the hollowness of human beings living at any period in history. This poem is written in the form of a “Dramatic Monologue”.

About T. S. Eliot (As A Poet)

            Thoman Streams Eliot; most commonly known as T. S. Eliot, is one of the significant poets of the 20th century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948 for his contribution to modern poetry. When T. S. Eliot died, Robert Giroux wrote,

“The World become a lesser place.”

            In 1911 he wrote his first and most acclaimed poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. The Waste Land, Ash Wednesday, Four Quarters, The Journey of the Magi, The Hollow Men, Morning at Widow, and The Hippopotamus are some of his good poems. He has also written seven plays.

The theme of the poem

          Social Anxiety, Lack of Spirituality, Loneliness, Love, Criticism Of the Modern age. Isolation and Mental instability is the theme of the Poem The Love Song by J. Alfred Prufrock.

The setting of the Poem

          The Setting of this poem is a big, dirty modern city. Here the poet does not mention any particular name of the city but it seems representative of other great cities of modern western civilization.

About The Title

          Originally the poem was entitled “Prufrock Among the Women” but later before his publication in poetry magazine, the title was changed to The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. The title of the poem indicates a romantic love situation, it is used ironically by the poet. The name Prufrock has been derived from the name of a furniture dealer in St. Louis.

structure and Form

            This is a poem of about 132 lines and an epigraph of 6 lines taken from the Dante Divine Comedy. This love song by J. Alfred Prufrock by T. S. Eliot is primarily written in free verse. This means that most lives do not follow a specific rhyme scheme or metrical pattern.

Love Song Poem Analysis

            In the poem, Eliot shows the sordid and aimless modern life. He shows the inner conflict duality, disintegration, and irresolution of the modern man. Eliot seems to say that modern life has been devoid of purpose and there is no spiritual direction. Juxtaposes the title it is an anti–romantic poem. It records Prufrock’s recoil from love rather than his engagement in love.

Prufrock is a middle-aged dandy who has seen much of the city life with its meaningless socializing and decadent values. He wants to make love with a Lady but he does not have the mental courage to disclose it. He is indecisive and passive, unable to take any initiative. His personal failure, together with his experience with life and society, makes him totally frustrated. He wants to get relief from such a situation by taking a walk-in city.

            Prufrock is not going to the lap of nature to breathe fresh air. Rather, his Journey would be in a half-deserted street on a foggy evening. The street is a half-deserted street because people leave the street in the evening and go to their homes. Again the streets are surrounded by cheap hotels and dirty restaurants. People spend their nights there but do not get proper rest and sleep.

The streets run in a winding course leading people to no destination. These winding streets are compared with a tedious argument. These lines are reflective of the protagonist’s state of mind. He is in a restless situation and he feels lonely and isolated. Yet he has no escape rotate to get rid of his isolation and boredom. Prufrock suffers from a lack of will and hesitation. He takes a decision that is immediately postponed and revised. Various thoughts crisscross his mind like the winding streets.

            Prufrock is timid and nervous lacking boldness. He is so paralyzed by his will that he himself does not dare to utter the Overwhelming Question of proposing to a Lady. He hesitates to offer his heart’s desire to the lady because he thinks that whatever he says to the lady will be answered by,

That is not I meant at all/ That is not it at all.”

            Prufrock is a middle-aged dandy with some Physical limitations. He afraid that

With a bold spot in the middle of my hair.”

            He is conscious that he is being aged as he says,

“I grow old. ….. I grow old……

            All through the poem Prufrock remains in his room. He is so infirm in will that she is ready for a hundred indecision, and for a hundred visions and revisions. It seems that while remaining in his room, he is content to imagine himself going through the streets. He wears clothes of the latest fashion to hide his age and to cover his boldness, yet he cannot gather the courage to offer his love.

            Prufrock’s timidity results from his experience with the society in which he lives. He is already known the hollowness and meaninglessness of his own life. He has also known the frivolity and artificiality of the women, as he says,

For I have known them all already,
 known them all…”

            Although he feels an attraction to the lady, he is aware of their worthlessness. In this sense too, the poem is no praising song of love.

Conclusion

          Thus, the title of The Love Song Of J. Alfred Prufrock neatly undermines the romantic association of Love Song with the ridiculous name Prufrock. The poem records the love wish of a man with neither the physical, vigor nor mental courage to propose love. Instead of depicting o the joy, bliss, and hope of Love, the poem reveals the helplessness and pathos of the protagonist. 

            Eliot very effectively portrays the pollution and shabbiness that are associated with modern city life. People are in decayed and sordid surroundings and leading hopeless life. The poet aptly reveals the boredom, loneliness, and frustration of modern society. Here the condition of Prufrock is symbolic of the condition of modern urbanized civilization. Thus, the title of the poem seems quite justified.

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Five Point Someone By Chetan Bhagat

Five Point Someone: What Not to do at IIT | Five Point Someone By Chetan Bhagat

Five Point Someone By Chetan Bhagat
Five Point Someone By Chetan Bhagat

Introduction

“Five Point someone is a story about wonders
 years of college – of friendship, love, and grades.”

            Five Point Someone is a novel written by Chetan Bhagat. It is the debut novel of Chetan Bhagat, set in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi in the period of 1991 to 1995. Through the novel author describes various facets of IIT life – the Academics, The Professors, Campus Life, and The Rat Race to get better grades.

This novel narrates the story of three IIT graduates and about their friendship and differences, study and enjoyment career and ambition, parental pressure and peer pressure and love. As the subtitle of the novel what not to do at IIT – suggests “This is not a book to teach you how to get into IIT or even how to live in college. In fact, it describes how screwed up things can get if you don’t think straight.” Chetan Bhagat points all that getting into IIT is not all that difficult as is made out to be. As he put it,

If you can lock yourself in a room with books for two years and throws away the key, you can probably make it here”.

            It was published in 2004 and this book story was made into two films 3 Idiots in Bollywood and Nanban in Tamil.  

Characters of Five Point Someone

Hari Kumar

             Hari Kumar is the narrator of the story. He loves Neha Samir Cherian who is Mr. Cherian’s daughter. He is average in his study and seems confused but he keeps all three friends together.

Ryan Oberoi

            Ryan Oberoi is the son of rich parents. He hates his parents as he feels neglected by them. He wants to be an innovator. He likes science and discoveries and new ideas. He is an extremely friendly, caring, and loving person, he also loves making friends.

Alok Gupta

            Alok Gupta belongs to a typical lower Indian middle-class family, burdened with lots of expectations and responsibilities. His father is paralyzed and his mother teaches school as a biology teacher. He wants to get a good GPA so he can get a job and support his family.

MR. Cherian

            Mr. Cherian is the head of the IIT department. He is very strict and possessive about his daughter. He imposes his dreams on his son’s shoulder. Samir is his son and he commits suicide due to the pressure created by him.

Neha & Samir Cherian

            Neha Samir Cherian is Mr. Cherian’s daughter. She loves her brother a lot but is not alive. Samir meets an accident on a railway track. She falls in love with Hari Kumar.

Mr. Vira

            Mr. Vira works at the laboratory. He hires Ryan to work with him in the laboratory with just a salary of 2000 rupees.

Venkat

            Venkat is the topper of the class. He is very good student.

About Chetan Bhagat

            Chetan Bhagat is an Indian author, Columnist, and screenwriter. His novels are adapted into successful movies. Most of his views are focused on Youth and issues based on national development which occupies the most important part of society. He is one of the most successful authors and his novels awarded as best-selling novels. Chetan Bhagat has introduced some unique trends in Indian English Literature. He has focused on the interest of the youth and has written about their aspirations. He is also considered as a youth icon. Among his world-famous works included –

  • One Night the Call Centre
  • The Three Mistakes of My life
  • 2 States
  • Revolution 2020
  • Half Girlfriend
  • One Indian Girl
  • What Young Lady Wants

About The Title

            The novel gets its title from the GPA system used in IIT, to rank students, Students who get five points are considered average, and don’t usually get the choice of job offers.

Summary Of “Five Point Someone” Novel

The novel starts with three friends, Ryan, Hari, and Alok. Ryan belongs to an affluent family. He is very smart, innovative, and daring. He raises his voice against justice and he is also a blunt guy. Hari belongs to a mediocre family. He suffers from a lack of confidence. He wants to become an engineer and earn a lot of money. Whereas Alok is completely different from the other two. He belongs to a poor family. His mother is a biology teacher and his father is paralyzed. His family has a lot of expectations from him, and Alok does not want to disappoint them.

            The book brings out the sheer brilliance of IIT students in a very subtle way. One professor mentions, “The Definition of A Machine”. It is anything that reduces human effort. Anything so, see the world around you and it is full of machines. A student Ryan asks: “Sir, what about a gym machine, like a bench press or something? That doesn’t reduce human effort. In fact, it increases it.” The professor does not know how to respond.

            People who have studied in IITs know how students can pose fairly challenging questions based on their common sense and without any prior knowledge and unsettle teachers in the class. This example shows that many professors at the IITs are totally unequipped to handle the brilliant students who study these.

 Ryan concludes that the IIT system is unfair because –

  • It suppresses talent and individual spirit.
  • It extracts the best years of one’s life from the country’s brightest minds.
  • It judges students with a draconian GPA system that destroys the relationship.
  • The Professor doesn’t care for the students.
  • IITs have hardly contributed to the country.

The College life

            In college Har, Ryan, and Alok meet and best friends of each other. Alok studies all time and does not compromise on it. He wants to get a degree with good grades so that he gets a superb job and helps his family get prosperous. He can do anything to make his dreams true. He does not care about practical knowledge.

            Ryan is completely contrary to him. He believes in acquiring knowledge and understanding about the concept behind everything he studies. Hari supports Ryan for having such a kind approach toward the purpose of acquiring knowledge. One night, they plan to go for a movie but Alok is bothered about the next day’s paper. But at last, he joins them. After a few days when the results come out and all of them get very poor marks. Alok gets super angry at Ryan, who decided to go to the movie on the previous day of the exam. Finally, they decide to study regularly for 2-3 hours every day.

Love Story

            One morning, Hari was strolling on the college campus and met Neha. She was so aesthetic and gorgeous. Hari falls in love with her. She offers to drop him and Hari accepts it. She introduces herself as Neha who is Mr. Cherian’s daughter. Mr. Cherian is the head of the department.

            One day, Ryan gets a piece of good news. He has been credited a hefty amount in his account. He pays the semester fee and the rest of the remained amount, he spends on buying a new scooter. Thereafter they do a lot of fun together. Alok would not participate in their every time. One day Alok’s father gets serious and was required to be hospitalized Ryan and Hari join Alok in his trouble and assures him to help him.

Alok Left the Group

            Again some months of constant enjoyment the exam starts and again they get poor marks. Alok was again disappointed with himself this time and he decides to shift himself to Venkat. Venkat was the topper of his class. Alok getting improve due to his differences from Ryan and Hari.

            But again, One day Alok’s father needed his help. Ryan forgets all the bitterness and helps him to get his father hospitalizes. Ryan’s nice gesture impress Alok and he again joins the group.

Neha Accepts Hari

            One day Hari meets Neha and decides to talk to her. They move to an ice cream parlor where they start a casual talk. Neha tells Hari about her brother Samir, who was no more alive. She starts feeling comfortable with him.

            Neha’s birthday is coming; hence Ryan decides to surprise her on his friend, Hari’s behalf. Hari, Alok, and Ryan visit there at night when she would be sleeping. Ryan gives a beautiful flower to Neha on the behalf of Hari. Neha thanks them to give her such a great surprise.

Semester drops

            4th Semester is nearby. Hari Ryan and Alok are also not preparing for it. Finally the exam starts and on the first, it was Viva. Hari is not prepared for the Viva. Ryan notices him there worrying about Viva. He suggests Hari have a small pack of Vodka. Hari does the same but during the Viva, Mr. Cherian senses the Odour of alcohol coming from his mouth and gives him zero marks in the viva. When Ryan gets to know about it, he plans to steal the question papers. Hari meets Neha and they get prepared a duplicate key to Mr. Cherian’s office.

            But during the theft, a guard catches them and calls Mr. Cherian. While the investigation Ryan tells him about Neha’s involvement in it. Thereby Mr. Cherian does not investigate further but drops them from the 4th sem.

The Realization Of the Mistakes

            Hearing this Alok tries to suicide and jumps from the top floor of the terrace. Luckily, he was alive but maimed with some severe injuries. Ryan and Hari stood by him unless he recovered completely. A few days later Hari and Neha meet in a canteen. They were talking about Samir. Mr. Cherian sees them talking about the letter, he thinks that it was a love letter. Thereby he snatches the letter from Hari’s hand and starts reading the suicide note himself.

            As he finished it, he could not resist crying. He then also realizes his mistake of imposing his fake expectations on someone who was not interested in fulfilling them. After college was over, Alok and Hari get a satisfying jobs. But Ryan does not get any job. Finally, Mr. Venu hires him as a lab assistant on a salary of just 2000 rupees per month.

Conclusion

            Thus, Five Point Someone unearths the dark side of our education system. Indian education system emphasizes more on cramping more than understanding the concept behind the topic. Although there are plenty of good things about the Indian Education system too nonetheless it also has some major faults.

            The story of this novel deals with the fears and insecurities of the students. The author Chetan Bhagat himself is the victim of this type of system. So he has tried to bring into the limelight the major issues related to the youth and his prime notion with regard to Education.

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Post-Independence Indian English Poetry

Post Independence Indian English Poetry | Indian English Poets

Post-Independence Indian English Poetry
Post-Independence Indian English Poetry

 Introduction

           Indian English Poetry after independence is known as post-independence Indian English poetry. Post-independence Indian English poetry witnessed the most crucial developments. India has been addressed by many prolific writers, who influenced entire generations. It is the field of lots of authors who have greatly contributed in terms of post-independence poetry.

Some of them worth mentioning are –

  1. Nissim Ezekiel
  2. Dominic Francis Moraes
  3. Purushottam Lal
  4. A. K. Ramanujam
  5. Gieve Patel
  6. Jayant Mahapatra 
  7. K. N. Daruwala
  8. Kamla Das

Nissim Ezekiel

            Nissim Ezekiel is one of the most notable among the new post-independence Indian English poets. He was also known as a great poet, actor, playwright, editor, and art critic. He received Sahitya Akademi Award in 1983 for his poetry collection Latler Day Psalms. He also received Padmashri Award in 1988. His poetry is very famous such as – The Night Scorpion, Time to Change, Sixty Poem, and The Unsatisfied Man.

Dominic Francis Moraes

            Dominic Francis Moraes popularly known as Dom Moraes. He was a famous Indian writer and poet who published nearly 30 books in English. He was also known as a great editor and edited magazines in London, Hong Kong, and New York. He became the first Indian Editor of The Times of India after independence. Some notable works are – A Beginning, My son’s Father, Never at Home, etc. He also won Sahita Akademi Award for English.

Purushottam Lal

            Purushottam Lal is commonly known as P. Lal. He was an Indian poet, essayist, translator, and professor. He founded the writer’s workshop in Calcutta. He is best known for translating of the famous Indian Epic Mahabharata into English. He wrote 8 books of poetry, over a dozen volumes of literary criticism as well a dozen of translations from another language into English.

A. K. Ramanujam

               A. K. Ramanujam’s full name is Attipate Krishnaswami Ramanujam. He was an Indian poet and scholar of Indian Literature, who wrote in both language English and Kannada. His poem explore family relationships between mother and son, Father and Son, Husband, and Wife. He was awarded +Sahitya Akademi Award for the collected poems. He was also awarded Padma Shree for his works. Some notable works are – The Striders, Second sight, and The interior Landscape.

Gieve Patel

            Gieve Patel is a great Indian poet, playwriter, painter as well as physician. He belongs to a group of Green Movement writers, which are involved in the effort to protect the environment. His poems speak of deep concern for nature.

Jayant Mahapatra

            Jayant Mahapatra needed no introduction, he was the first Indian English poet to receive the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1981. He was also awarded Padma Shri in 2009, but for some reason, he returned Padma Shri. He has written 18 books of poems. His notable works are Indian Summer and Hunger, A Father Hours, and Waiting.

K. N. Daruwala

            K. N. Daruwala is an Indian poet and short story writer in English. He is also a former Indian Police Service (IPS) Officer. He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1984 for his poetry collection, The Keeper Of The Dead. Some notable works are – The Dance Of Peacock, Crossing of Rivers, A Summer of Tiger, and so on.

Kamla Das

          Kamla Das popularly known by her one-time pet name Madhavikutty was an Indian poet in English and Malayalam literature. Some famous collections are – Summer In Calcutta, Yaa Allah, Only the Soul Knows How to Sing, and so on. He received Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award, Ason World Prize, and Asian Poetry Prize as well.

Conclusion            

Indian English Literature is highly indebted to the post-Independence Indian English Poets, which have been Nissim Ezekiel, Dominic Francis Moraes, Purushottam Lal, A. K. Ramanujam, Gieve Patel, Jayant Mahapatra, K. N. Daruwala, Kamla Das, etc.

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Romantic Poetry & Romantic Poets

Romantic Poetry In English Literature | Romantic Poets In English Literature

Romantic Poetry & Romantic Poets
Romantic Poetry & Romantic Poets

Introduction

Poetry is written between 1798 AD to 1837 AD known as “Romantic Poetry”. Literary legend also terms Romantic Poetry as The Return To Native. The romantic period is the reaction against the Age Of Enlightenment. Before the Romantic period, the reasoning was given a lot of importance. In the Romantic age, Romantic poets stressed imagination, passion, emotion, nature, and the life of common men which became the features of Romantic poetry. The romantic age was highly influenced by the ideas of the French Revolution. Romantic poets like Wordsworth & Coleridge supported the ideas of the French Revolution such as the freedom of an individual. The publication of Lyrical Ballads in 1798 by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, gave birth to Romanticism in the history of English Literature.

Romantic Poetry

Romantic Poetry has no specific association with love. It is associated with feeling or emotion, in particular with the feeling and emotion related to nature or art but not what we call romantic love.

Features of Romantic Poetry

(a). Reaction Against The Neo-Classicism

            The beginning of Romantic Poetry was the movement against Neo-Classical poetry. Neo-Classical poetry was the product of intellect and reason, while Romantic poetry is the product of emotion.

(b). Emotion was the Key to Romantic Poetry

            Romantic poetry abounds in motion. Romantic poets stressed expressing subjective emotion and it is usually the poet’s personal experience. Emotions were the heart of Romantic Poetry.

(c). Imagination was Prominent in Romantic Poetry

          Apart from emotion, the poets of Romanticism also indulged in plenty of imagination and mysticism in their poems.

(d). Nature of central Romantic Poetry

          Another important feature of Romantic Poetry is nature. The poets pick up the different aspects of nature and put them in a new form every time. Nature remains the spirit of all Romantic Poetry.

(e). Supernaturalism

            Supernatural elements are found in the most of poems of the Romantic era.

(f). Easily Comprehensive and free verse style

          Romantic poets use language that was very easy to understand for the common man. Poets rejected strict poetic meter such as Heroic Couplet.

Poets of the Romantic Period

            The most prominent romantic poets are still some of the most popular poets today. The first generation of poets includes – “Samuel Taylor Coleridge” and “Willliam Wordsworth”. The most recognizable name of the second generation was – George Gordon better known as Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelly, and John Keat.

1. William Wordsworth

          William Wordsworth was one of the founders of English Romanticism. P. B. Shelly another great poet of Romanticism called him Poets of Nature and he himself called him. A Worshiper Of Nature. He defined his and Coleridge’s innovative poetry in his preface of lyrical Ballads –

”Poetry is the Spontaneous      
 overflow of Powerful feelings;
 it takes its origin in emotion
recollected in tranquility.”

            Imagination, Subjectivity, Nature Pantheism, and Mysticism, Humanism are the basic theme of Wordsworth’s poetry. His most famous poems are I Wander Lonely As A Cloud, She Was A Phantom Of Delight, The Solitary Reaper, The Lucy Poems and We Are Seven, and Tintern Abbey.

2. S.T. Coleridge

            S. T. Coleridge along with Wordsworth is the pioneer of romantic poetry. He is the friend of William Wordsworth. S. T. Coleridge has been greatly influenced by Wordsworth; in fact, it is said that Wordsworth has helped him in writing poetry. He has good observation and a sense of feeling. He not only observes nature but also feels it. He loves landscapes, sceneries, countryside images, rivers, forests, and plants. He finds beauty in them and mentions it in his poetry. Among his world-famous Romantic poem include – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Kubla Khan, Christabel, Dejection, and An Ode.

3. Percy Bysshe Shelly

          Percy Bysshe Shelly was the most imaginative poet. He regarded poetry as “The expression of the imagination”. Shelly lived in the world of Fancy and Imagination. The major Romantic elements found in their poetry of Shelley are – Love Of Nature, Imagination, Melancholy, Supernaturalism, Hellenism, Beauty, Idealism, and Subjectivity.

He wrote many iconic poems during his short including – “Ode to the West Wind”, “To a Skylark”, and “The Cloud”. According to Donald H. Reiman –

“Shelley belongs to the great
 tradition of western writers
 that include Dante, Shakespeare,
 and Milton.”

4. John Keats

            John Keats is the last but the best romantic poet in English literature. He is referred to as a pure Romantic poet. Like other Romantics poets, imagination played a vital role in his poetry. His Ode To A Nightingale is a fine example of eternal beauty. The Eve Of St. Agnes and The Eve of St. Mark are poems based on two different Medieval superstitions. He personified Nature in many of his great odes, that as Ode to Autumn, Ode on Indolence, Ode on a Grecian Urn, Ode on Melancholy, and Ode to Psyche. Keats defined beauty in his Poetry as

“A thing of beauty
 is a joy forever.”

5. Lord Byron (George Gardon)

            Lord Byron was a well-known Romantic Poet of the second Generation. His poems are deep and reflect his personal feelings. In his literary career, he wrote many poems such as – Child Harold’s Pilgrimage, The Vision of Judgement, Don Juan, and She walks in Beauty.

Conclusion

            Thus, Romantic poets of the 19th century write subjective poetry. They themselves became the subject of matter of their poetry. They are guided by imagination which is a great source of creating them. Instead of writing poetry in heroic couplets, they wrote poetry in form of Ode, Lyrics, Elegy, Ballad, and Epic.

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English literature Definition, History

What is English Literature, Origin, Definition, History, Periods, and Authors

English literature Definition, History
English literature Definition, History

Definition Of English Literature

English literature is the study and analysis of written works produced in the English language. It encompasses a wide range of texts, including poetry, novels, plays, and non-fiction, spanning from the Anglo-Saxon period to the present day.

Literature simply refers to any piece of writing that is valued as a work of art. In a general sense, it is the expression of human thoughts, feelings, and experiences. Literature can display both good and bad aspects of society. Hence, literature can be regarded as a mirror of society whatever changes the society undergoes they will be reflected in contemporary literature in one way or the other. Literature then is a successful medium to express human emotions: sadness, happiness, pleasure, pain, love, hate, fear, disgust, and anger such human emotions in literature are expressed artistically through language. It means literature needs to be beautiful and trustworthy.

Origin Of Literature

The word “literature” originated from the Latin word “literatura” which means “learning, writing, grammar.” This word was formed from “litera” which means “letter” or “character.” It was used in the context of education and learning, specifically the study of written texts. In the Middle Ages, the term “literature” was used to refer to the works of scholars and poets, and it was not until the 18th century that the term began to be used more broadly to refer to all written works.

Authors

One of the most iconic works of English literature is William Shakespeare’s plays. His plays are still performed and studied all over the world. Other notable works include the epic poem Beowulf, the novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, and the novel Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340s – 1400) has been called the “father of English literature“, or, alternatively, the “father of English poetry“.

Study Of English Literature

The study of English literature can encompass many different elements, including literary history, literary theory, literary criticism, and literary analysis. It can also encompass the study of literary movements and genres, such as the Romantic period, the Gothic novel, and the sonnet.

In addition to studying the literary texts themselves, the study of English literature also often involves the examination of the historical, cultural, and social contexts in which the texts were produced. This can include studying the life and times of the author, as well as the cultural and political climate of the period in which the text was written.

The study of English literature can also encompass the analysis of literary form and technique, such as the use of symbolism, imagery, and metaphor. It can also encompass the study of literary genres, such as novels, poetry, and drama.

Overall, the study of English literature is a diverse and multifaceted field that offers a wide range of opportunities for exploration and analysis. Whether you are interested in the literary texts themselves, the historical and cultural contexts in which they were produced, or the technical elements of literary form and technique, there is something for everyone in the field of English literature.

History Of English Literature

English literature and history are closely intertwined, as the literature of a particular time period is often a reflection of the historical and cultural context in which it was produced.

Old English Period (Anglo-Saxon Period) 449 to 1066

The history of English literature dates back to the Anglo-Saxon period, which lasted from the 5th to the 11th century. During this time, literature was primarily oral and was passed down from generation to generation through storytelling and song. Some of the most notable works from this period include the epic poem Beowulf, which tells the story of a heroic warrior and his battles with monsters, and the poem The Seafarer, which reflects on the themes of exile and the sea.

Middle English Period (1066-1500)

The Middle Ages, which lasted from the 12th to the 15th century, saw the emergence of written literature in the form of Chaucerian poetry, as well as the emergence of the first plays and dramas. Some of the most notable works from this period include The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer and the plays of William Shakespeare.

Renaissance Period (1500-1600)

The Renaissance Period, which lasted from the 16th to the 17th century, saw a renewed interest in the classical literature of ancient Greece and Rome, as well as the emergence of the novel as a literary genre. Some of the most notable works from this period include the plays of Shakespeare, the poetry of John Milton, and the novels of Daniel Defoe.

Neoclassical Period (1600-1785)

The 18th century, also known as the Age of Enlightenment, saw the emergence of the novel as a dominant literary form and the rise of the novel of sensibility, which focused on the emotional experiences of characters. Some of the most notable works from this period include the novels of Jane Austen, the poetry of William Wordsworth, and the plays of Oliver Goldsmith.

Romantic Period (1785-1832)

The 19th century, also known as the Romantic period, saw a renewed interest in nature and emotion, as well as the emergence of the Gothic novel. Some of the most notable works from this period include the novels of Jane Austen, the poetry of Lord Byron, and the plays of Oscar Wilde.

Modern History Period

The 20th century saw a continuation of the trends established in the 19th century, with the emergence of the modernist movement and the rise of the novel as a dominant literary form. Some of the most notable works from this period include the novels of James Joyce, the poetry of T.S. Eliot, and the plays of Samuel Beckett.

The history of English literature is also closely tied to the history of England. Many of the literary works from different time periods reflect the political and social changes that were taking place in the country at the time. For example, the literature of the 18th century reflects the rise of the middle class and the emergence of new economic and political systems, while the literature of the 19th century reflects the industrial revolution and the rise of the working class.

It’s important to note that English literature and history are not limited to England alone, it also encompasses the literature and history of the British Isles and its colonies. This includes literary works produced in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, as well as literature produced by writers of the British Empire, such as Rudyard Kipling, Chinua Achebe, and Joseph Conrad.

English Literature As A Subject

English literature refers to written works produced in the English language. It encompasses a wide range of texts, including poetry, novels, plays, and non-fiction, from the Anglo-Saxon period to the present day. The study of English literature includes literary history, literary theory, literary criticism, and literary analysis of the texts themselves, as well as the examination of the historical, cultural, and social contexts in which the texts were produced.

Literature also encompasses the analysis of literary form and technique, such as the use of symbolism, imagery, and metaphor, as well as the study of literary genres, such as the novel, poetry, and drama. Additionally, the study of English literature also encompasses the analysis of contemporary literature and popular culture, including the study of film, television, and digital media.

Conclusion

Thus, literature is a vital record of what men have seen in life, what they experienced of it, and what they have thought and felt about those aspects of it
that have the most immediate and enduring interest for all of us. It was thus fundamentally an expression of life through the medium of language. Literature could be said to be a sort of disciplined technique for arousing certain emotions.

It begins with the creative possibilities of human language and the desire of human beings to use their language creatively. Literature enriches our lives because it increases our capacities for understanding and communication. It helps us to find meaning in our world to express it and share it with others. And this is the most humane activity of our existence.

Overall, the study of English literature and history offers a rich and diverse field of exploration, providing insight into the cultural, political, and social contexts of different time periods and the literary works that were produced during those times. Whether you are interested in the literature itself or the historical and cultural contexts in which it was produced, there is something for everyone in the field of English literature and history.

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