Indian Literature

Kamayani By Jaishankar Prasad

Kamayani By Jaishankar Prasad | Kamayani Summary

Kamayani By Jaishankar Prasad
Kamayani By Jaishankar Prasad


            Kamayani is one of the magnum opus, which means the great work of Jaishankar Prasad. It was considered a great epic of the human psyche. It is an epic of romance (Chhayavad). It is published in 1936. It is a long narrative poem. This poem is completed in seven years. In this poem, Manu, Shraddha, and Ida keep their historicity intact signifying symbolic meanings. Shraddha is the symbol of Faith. Ida is the symbol of Intellect and Manu is the symbol of Mind. The main story of Kamayani can be divided into four parts –

  1. The flood and destruction of the race of Gods.
  2. The meeting of Manu and Shraddha.
  3. The Union of Manu and Ida.
  4. The Journey of Manu to Kailash.

About Jaishankar Prasad

            Jaishankar Prasad was a prominent figure in Hindi Literature as well as Hindi theatre. He was also known as a Chhayavadi poet. He is considered one of the Four Pillars of Romanticism in Hindi Literature along with Sumitranandan Pant, Mahadevi Varma, and Suryakant Tripathi Nirala. Prasad started writing poetry with the pen name Kaladhar. He was a poet, play writer, novelist, story writer, and literary critic. He led the revolt in poetry as well as in every field. He wrote seven books of poetry, thirteen plays, three novels, five collections of short stories, and one book on Literary essays. In her glowing tribute to Jaishankar Prasad, the poet-critic Mahadevi Varma said:

“Whenever I remember our great poet,
 Prasad a particular image comes to my mind.”

Structure of Kamayani

            The basic structure of Kamayani has been drawn after the original Vedic literature. This is also said that it is written in the pattern of Dante’s Divine Comedy. It is the epic of emotions, feelings, and sentiments. The poetic texture of Kamayani has two aspects: –

  1. Content
  2. Form

            At the level of content, Kamayani has higher pleasure, aesthetic seriousness, deepest subtleties, and dazzling image which established it as a great epic in Hindi Literature.

            At the level of form, Kamayani’s phonological organization, sweet and melodious overtones it is sense relations win our hearts.

Theme Of Kamayani

            Jaishankar Prasad has divided the whole theme of Kamayani into 15 Cantos – Anxiety (Chinta), Hope (Aasha), Faith (Shraddha), Eros (Kama), Passion (Vasna), Shyness (Lajja), Action (Karma), Jealousy (Irshya), Intellect (Ida), Conflict (Sangharsh), Dream (Svapna), Renunciation (Nirved), Bliss (Anand), and Mystery (Rahasya).

Kamayani Poem Analysis

            Manu is the hero of this epic. According to Hindu Mythology, he is supposed to be the progenitor of the human race. Manu is the first man in Indian History. The Poem has three main characters – Manu, Shraddha, and Ida.

            The description in Canto Worry and Hope is related to the flood and destruction of the race of Gods, while the Cantos from faith to Jealousy is related to the meeting of Manu and Shraddha. The union of Manu and Ida consists form intellect to Renunciation and lost part, the Journey of Many to Kailas comprises of last two cantos – Mystery and Bliss.

            The story of Kamayani begins with a horrible flood in which the whole divine race and their glory are completely destroyed. Manu also belongs to this race of gods who escaped death because at that time he was in his boat. Something mysterious pushed the boat in such a way that it dashed against the top of the Himalayas Mountain. Manu was seeing that great deluge with a heavy heart and tearful eyes which had destroyed his whole family and society. This destruction was caused mainly for three reasons – Pride, excess of luxury, and inactivity. Once he meets Shraddha (the daughter of Kama) and marries her. Kama, Vasana, and Lajja enter their life.

            Manav the son of Manu and Shraddha is born and is also the symbol of human progeny. Manu is then called upon by Karma to perform the sacrifice. Swayed by Irshya he abandons Shraddha and Manav. In the course of his wandering, he meets Ida, who is the embodiment of intellect. Her prosperous kingdom Sarasvat region has been ruined by the flood. Charmed by her Manu lays the foundation of a new human society. When in his over-enthusiasm he tries to possess Ida, but she refuses to marry him. Then he tries to rape her.

            Manu’s this act brings about a popular revolt. He is badly bounded. Shraddha arrives with Manav and sees Manu. Forgiving his betrayal she restores him to health. Ashamed of his bad behavior, Manu is repentant and decides to renounce the world. So he slips away without informing his wife and child to undergo penance to have a darshan of reality. Shraddha entrusts Manav to Ida and joins Manu in this journey to achieve bliss in Kailash.


            Kamayani begins on a note of despair and ends on a note of bliss. Through this poem, Jaishankar Prasad has given the massage to humanity that in this blind race of materialism, everybody is running after wealth and luxury but its ultimate result is nothing except destruction.

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Voices In the City

Voices In the City By Anita Desai | Voices In The City Critical Analysis

Voices In the City
Voices In the City


            Voices in the city is the second novel written by Indian woman writer Anita Desai. It is a type of pessimistic novel cry, peacock. It has been first published in 1965 and won Sahitya Akademi Award. The story of this novel moves around the life of the white-collar class-educated people of Calcutta. From multiple points of view, the story of this novel mirrors the Indian social moves. It is a story of a Bohemian brother and his two sisters caught in the crosscurrents of changing social values.

            Voices in the city, as the little one suggests, deals with the voice of anger and the vision of fear in the city of Calcutta.

Present novel voices in the city are based on the times Desai spent in Calcutta in the early 1960s, and is a chronicle of the social changes in a modernizing India, exploring what happens when traditional, Indian ways of Life come into conflict with new ideas and the effect has on young people. Through this novel Desai presents the negative side of living in Calcutta, emphasizing the crowds, noisiness, frenzied, pace, and lack of places to think and reflect.

            The city is also presented as a place where young people are unable to find happiness in their lives or jobs due to constant pressure

About the Author

            The author of this novel Anita Desai is a great Indian novelist. Her published works included adult novels, children’s books, and short stories. During her literary career. She wrote approximately 16 novels. Some of the world-famous are – Fasting Feasting, The Village by the Sea, In Custody, Clear Light of Day, Bye Bye Blackbird, Fire on the mountains, and Where shall we go this Summar?” As a writer, she has been shortlisted for the Booker Prize three times. She receive a Sahitya Akademi Award in 1978 for her novel Fire on the Mountain.  She also won the British Guardian Prize for The Villages By the Sea.

Summary of Voices Novel

            The story starts with three siblings, Monisha, Nirode, and Amla. Monisha, the oldest is neurotic, sensitive, and prone to overthinking situations. She has married into a very traditional family, where she outwardly plays the role of a dutiful and devoted wife. However, internally, she is in deep turmoil due to the ugliness of her surrounding. She is unable to bear a child, one of her primary duties as a wife, which she interprets as an unwillingness to bring another life into a world that seems to her ugly and meaningless. At the end of the novel, Monisha commits suicide by burning herself alive in the bathroom.

            Though her sibling at first does not understand her seemingly out-of-character action, they soon find a diary that details her inner thoughts.

            Monisha’s younger brother Nirode also has trouble adjusting to life in Calcutta. At the beginning of the novel, he has a good job at a newspaper, which he soon quits because he cannot find the meaning of a made-for self, expression in work. Though his mother wealthy widow who lived in the countryside, offers to help him find a new job, Nirode rejects her aid, preferring to fail on his own.

            Nirode attempts several business, ventures including starting a magazine of his own and writing a play. However, all his attempts fail as his magazine folds and his play is rejected by theatre groups. He begins to equate the city of Calcutta with the goddess kali, a deity of destruction that kills creativity and self-expression.

Nirode attempts to model his existence after a painter named Dharama who seems to be at peace with his life in Calcutta. However, Dharma is a mysterious figure and Nirode is ultimately unable to understand his motivations. A visit from his mother finally resolves his conflict when Nirode dreams of his mother as Kali and realis that the goddess, with destructive powers, also has the power to preserve what is important.

            Amla the youngest daughter, struggles with many of the same issues as her sibling but is still relatively naïve and hopeful at the beginning of the novel. She also encounters Dharma, and he has a greater effect on her. Dharma considers Amla the ideal model for his painting drawing her into his circle of literate, cosmopolitan friends. At first, Amla is excited, but she soon grows tired of the cynical artists, as well as disillusioned when she finds out that Dharma is a philanderer who treats his daughter poorly.

            However, the experience also gives her a new perspective on her life, allowing her to come to terms with a dull job and boredom living in Calcutta. The death of her sister serves as a secondary shock that further motivates her to make changes in her attitude. Though her boring job at an advertising agency does not satisfy her, she finds something that does, making illustrations for a translation of the Panchatantra. This piece of ancient Indian Political philosophy appeals to her because she finds its message meaningful and its way of being conveyed, through fables about animals, to be interesting and creative.


            Thus, this novel explores the ways people try to find meaning in their lives. Sometimes, her character succeeds, as Amla does and sometimes they fail, like Monisha. So voices in the city is a brilliant novel, full of light and darkness, life and death.

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Glory At Twilight

Glory At Twilight Summary | Glory At Twilight By Bhabani Bhattacharya

Glory At Twilight
Glory At Twilight By Bhabani Bhattacharya


            Glory At Twilight is a famous short story written by an Indian writer Bhabani Bhattacharya. It is the story of Satyajit an honest and hard-working man. The Author depicts the harsh reality of how failure is faster and more powerful than success. It can take years to build on an honest reputation and gain prosperity, but failure never gives a warning before it strikes and takes down those years of hard work. The story explains how difficult it is to adjust to failure after being a glorious achiever.

About Bhabani Bhattacharya

            Bhabani Bhattacharya was a famous Indian writer, who wrote social realist fiction. He was born in Bhagalpur, part of the Bengal Presidency in British India. He gained a Bachelor’s degree from Patna University and a doctorate from the University of London. He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi award in 1967. Among his famous literary works included –

  • So Many Hungers!
  • Music for Mohini
  • He Who Rides a Tiger
  • A Goddess Name Gold
  • Shadow from Ladakh
  • A Dream is Hawaii

Analysis Of Story

            The story begins with the description of a slow-moving, narrow–gauge Indian train. Satyajit the protagonist of this story was a passenger on that train. He was tall thin and nearly forty years old man. He wore smart glasses to hide the hated glare in his eyes. With the sudden collapse of his bank, all his private property was gone overnight. He had lost all his equities, the house on Tagore street, and two cars. Therefore he had to travel on that wretched train. His wife was away with her parents in Delhi. She was unaware of the extent of his ruin.

If the success had come fast failure had come faster.”

            Satyajit received the news of the birth of his child. Satyajit sold off his diamond ring to send his wife money for the name-giving ceremony. He was born in a humble village. Satyajit had struggled hard to attain that height. He was appointed as a clerk in a bank. It was all about a forged cheque for Rs. 2000/-. The man who presented the cheque looked frightened. His hand shook because the cheque was a forged one. The man was caught by Satyajit. He admitted that he had committed forgery because his wife was suffering from Tuberculosis. He had to forge the cheque to collect money to buy medicine. By detecting this case the clerk became an accountant.

            Just before his journey, he received a letter, which was about the wedding of his Srinath Uncle’s fifth daughter Beena. That was to take place on the 20th of that month. Satyajit was presented in the marriage of the other daughters.

            Srinath was Satyajit’s neighbor in Shantipur village. There was no blood relation between them. Satyajit made up his mind to go to Santipur to attend the marriage ceremony. He would also avail himself the chance to take at his ancestral house and fishpond. He liked to give them to his wife as his last gift. So he intimated to Uncle Srinath that he would attend the marriage.

            At the platform, the crowd came rushing toward Satyajit as he stepped down from the train. They welcomed him with a small girl garlanding him. Satyajit was given a warm welcome. He was called the Glory of the Motherland. In the village, a group of ladies came forward to wash his feet. But Srinath wanted Beena to wash his feet. He smiled, and touched her hair in the gesture of blessing and wished that groom to be worthy of Beena. Other daughters Kamini, Damini, and Sahashi sit near him fanning with palm-leaf fans.

            Satyajit was praised by Beena’s mother who said that her daughter would have still been unmarried has he not helped them.

            Satyajit has Rs. 200 in total. He decided to give Rs. 101/-. He wanted to save Rs. 50/- to buy a perambulator for his newborn son.

            Satyajit went around the village meeting the elders through the rest of the day. He fondly visited his house and let out to a tenant. The groom’s party arrived in ox carts. Satyajit wanted to give Rs. 101/-. Srinath requested him to give Rs 2001/- towards cash dowry. Satyajit wanted to tell about his misery to Srinath but he could not get a chance to tell it.

Srinath wanted if someone in the village would advance a loan. Srinath came back and said that Harish, the moneylender would give the but he needed security, as he was doubtful of the repayment. Groom’s father would break off the marriage unless cash was paid before the ceremony started. Satyajit decided to give Rs. 151/-.

            Srinath told that Harish was willing to pay against the security of his house and fishpond. Srinath came with folded hands before Satyajit in order to overcome the daughter’s crises. Satyajit agreed to the condition and the problem was solved. The villagers hated the moneylender Harish for his activities. The story presents the greatness of Satyajit.


            Thus, Bhabani Bhattacharya on one hand depicted the glory Satyajit used to cherish earlier and his situation after his economic downfall. On another hand, it was also the case of the dowry system, which should be tackled with ironed hand. This shows the greed, lust, and wantonness of our society. So now we can say that The Glory At Twilight is the best work of Bhabani Bhattacharya.  

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In Custody By Anita Desai

In Custody By Anita Desai | In Custody Summary & Critical Analysis

In Custody By Anita Desai
In Custody By Anita Desai


            In Custody is a novel written by a well-known Indian author, Anita Desai. It was written in 1984 and was shortlisted for the Booker Prize. The novel is about the search for one’s identity and meaning in life. There are many major and minor characters in this novel. Among them, Deven Sharma is the protagonist of the novel, who was a Hindi Literature professor in Mirpore (Delhi) at Lala Ramlal college.

But his true interest was in Urdu poetry. Devan gets the opportunity when his brash childhood friend Murad hires him to interview his idol, the famous, Urdu poet Nur Shahjenabadi. The novel is also a war between the languages – Urdu and Hindi, innocence and corruption, good and evil, loyalty and deception, success and failure, and poor and rich.

Characters Of In Custody

Deven Sharma

                Deven Sharma a Hindi Professor in Mirpore in Lala Ramlal College is the main character of this novel. He loves Urdu but has to teach in the Hindi department.


            Sarla is Devan’s unhappy wife, who was chosen for him by his family. She was full of her own dream of what marriage might be like, but life with Deven rapidly quashed them.

Nur Shahjenabadi

            Nur is a great Urdu poet, famed throughout India. He stands for the father and protector of Urdu poetry. Safiya Begum is Nur’s first wife.


            Murad is the friend of Deven. He is a manipulative character who uses Deven for his own benefit. He exploits Devan and deceives him throughout the novel. He runs Awaaz Magazine, a publication devoted to the promotion of Urdu.

Imtiaz Begum

            Nur’s second wife and a poet. She is hungry for fame and wealth.

Siddiqui Sahib

            The head of the Urdu department at the college where Devan teaches.


            Devan and Sarla’s young son.

 Mr. V. K. Sahay, Mrs. Bhalla, Mr. Rai, Jayadev, Mr. Jain, Chiku, Chotu, Trivedi, Pintu, Dhanu, and Ali are the minor character of the novel.

About Anita Desai

            Anita Desai, the most known post–independence Indian woman writer in English mostly concerned with the questions of the survival and existence of women in her novels. Desai published her first short story when she was only twenty years old. Her first novel was Cry The Peacock. Her other novels include – Voices In The City, Bye-Bye, Blackbird, Where Shall We Go This Summer, Fire on The Mountain, Clear Light of Day, and The zigzag way. In addition to novels, she was written books for children. Desai received many awards – the Sahitya Akademi Award, The Guardian Award for children’s Fiction.

            Anita Desai in one of her interviews stated her initial intention of not including women characters in her, In Custody.

            I thought I would try to write without any female characters but it proved impossible. I could hear them screaming in the background, banging on the doors, being very hysterical.

Analysis of the Novel

            The novel opens with Murad paying Devan a surprise visit in Mirpore, the dusty unremarkable town near Delhi where he lives and teaches. Over lunch, they discuss the decline of Urdu and how it has now been replaced by Hindi, the Language of Peasants Murad’s magazine Awaaz is dedicated to Urdu Literature. Even though Deven teaches Hindi but his true interest is in Urdu poetry. Devan resents that Murad still hasn’t paid him for his last few articles in Awaaz, but when Murad asks him to interview Nur Shahjenabadi for the next issue he eagerly agrees.

            Another day, Deven takes the bus to meet Murad in Delhi. Old Delhi’s Chandni chowk market. They go to Nur’s house and Deven finds Nur lying on a couch upstairs dressed in white, surrounded by tattered books. Deven explains that he’s writing an article about Urdu poetry, but Nur declares that Urdu is already dead. Nur starts reciting one of his poems. The poem was one of Deven’s father’s favorites.

            Deven is astonished to watch Nur drink glasses of rum. Nur’s second wife Imtiaz Begum stands over him, screaming that he wastes his time drinking instead of taking care of his family and poetry. Deven takes the morning bus back to Mirpore, where he decides to go straight to work. When he finally makes it home his wife Sarla refuses to talk to him. She hates his feebleness and low salary and she hates her simple-mindedness.

            Then Deven gets a postcard from Nur thanking him for His decision to work as my secretary. Deven returns to Nur’s House where he joins a huge crowd assembling to watch a poetry recital. He is dismayed to see Imtiaz performing, not Nur. In the middle of the show, Nur stands up and walks out, and Deven follows him. Upstairs Nur lays on his couch, starts drinking, and complains that Imtiaz is betraying him by writing her own poetry.

He explains that Deven can help him write down some old unpublished poems. Suddenly Imtiaz arrives with her skirt full of rupee and mocks Nur for giving up on poetry. An elderly woman Nur’s first wife Safiya follows Imtiaz inside and attacks her. Deven runs out and returns to Murad’s office where Murad proposes that he tape-record Nur’s new Pomes instead of trying to write them all down.

            Back in Mirpore, Deven meets his college’s sole Urdu professor, Abid Siddiqui, and explains that he is interviewing Nur – and might even collect Nur’s unpublished poem or write his biography. But Deven admits that he needs recording equipment, so Siddiqui  Slyly convinces the college registrar, Mr. Rai to give him funding. In Delhi, Murad marches Deven into an electronics shop, where the owner Mr. Jain gives him a second-hand Japanese recorder and offers his nephew, Chiku, as a technical assistant to run it.

            The next time Deven visits Nur, there is another massive crowd in the courtyard because Imtiaz is deathly ill. Deven explains his plan to record Nur’s Poetry but Nur says it won’t work because Imtiaz will overhear them. In her room, Imtiaz warns Nur against reciting poetry. For a third time, Devan panics and flees Nur’s house. But on his way out, he meets Sofiya, She explains that Deven must rent another space if he wants to get an interview with Nur. She offers to help for a price. But Deven doesn’t have any money.

            Safiya rents Deven a room in a brothel down the street from Nur’s house. Deven and Chiku set up the recorder and then Nur arrives. Nur finally starts reciting some poetry but Chiku falls asleep and forgets to record it. Over the following weeks, Nur comes to the room every day, but he spends more time telling old stories and arguing with his follower. Whenever he does recite a poem, Chiku misses it. One day, Nur finally performs a new poem and even writes it down in Deven’s notebook, but then he walks out of the room and never returns.

          At Jain’s shop, Deven finally listens to his recording and realizes that they are mostly full of cracking sounds and laughter, but not Nur’s voice.  Deven visits Delhi to demand his pay from Murad but Murad refuses. Back in Mirpore Deven opens a lengthy letter from Imtiaz, who explains that she knew he was recording Nur. She includes several of her own poem for Deven to reads. But he doesn’t read the poem.


            Thus, the novel In Custody deals with various issues that were prevalent during the times when it was written. Devan does not understand the scheming nature of Murad. Deven does not fit into the culture of evil where people eat, drink, and make merry. He has a love for pure poetry of the Urdu language and he pursues that in the novel passionately so as to preserve it from being endangered. The novel seems to be about Deven’s fight against himself, as well as the society in which he does not fit.

Related Topic: Cracking India

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Indian Civilization And Culture

Indian Civilization and Culture Summary By  Mahatma Gandhi | Indian Civilization By Mahatma Gandhi

Indian Civilization And Culture
Indian Civilization And Culture


            Indian Civilization and Culture is a wonderful piece of writing which is written by a great leader and a Patriotic of India Mahatma Gandhi, full name Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi. He is popularly known as Bapu or the Father of The Nation. He was born in Porbandar, Gujrat on 2 October 1869. He was more of a spiritual leader than a politician. He successfully used truth and nonviolence as the chief weapon against British Rule in India and helped India gain Independence from 1915 till 1948, he completely dominated Indian Politics. He is known for his teaching for this teaching of non-violence, brotherhood, equality, and truth.

About Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader in India, known for his enormous achievements and unwavering commitment to social justice. He inspired people across the world to stand against exploitation and fight for freedom and led India to independence through peaceful means. Gandhi was a skilled communicator, using his mastery of the English language to write works of excellence and share his thoughts with the world. His autobiography, “My Experiment with Truth,” remains an important document of his life and philosophy.

Gandhiji On Indian Civilization

            The present extract on Indian Civilization and Culture gives much emphasis on the beauty and the glory of our Indian Civilization and Culture. In this extract, the writers try to compare Indian Civilization and Culture to foreign cultures and Civilizations.

            The Indian Civilization is unparalleled and can not be beaten in the world. The seeds of Indian Civilization shown by our ancestors were deep-rooted. They had developed miraculously in a big tree with many of its branches spread over the heart of India. Rome, Greece, and many other centers of ancient civilization were diminishers or no longer exist in their former glory. Gandhi ji says the human mind is like a restless bird. The more it gets the more it wants. That is why human beings remained unsatisfied. Wealth and Poverty can not be the subject of happiness and sorrow.

            After making a comparison we find that Indian Culture and Civilization are far better and richer than any other Culture and Civilization in the world. Indian Culture is rich and beautiful in many aspects. It is true that the West is ahead of us in terms of discovery and Technology. It is also true that western techniques and technology gave us a lot of things to us. Western civilization has given Literature to the entire world. Mahatma Gandhi was not a hater of westernization. He too admits that we learn so many things from the West. He actually wants to suggest that we should not forget our own culture.

            Mahatma Gandhi also says that learning from the west is not bad but imitating the whole thing from other cultures and civilizations may damage the infinite beauty and glory of our own culture and civilization. The diversity and pluralism of India have their strength and beauty which maintain the perfect peace and harmony among the people of different castes and religions.

            Mahatma Gandhi nicely portrays the seeds of Indian Civilization as shown by our ancestors. Its foundation is so strong and nothing in the world can beat it. Many civilizations in the world were born and lost with the passage of time but Indian Civilization is unaffected and still glittering like pure ornaments. The writer is very upset when he sees the young people, who are completely dependent on the shines of materialists of the west instead of understanding the true beauty of our own culture and Civilization.

            He simply suggests to the people of India that India is a treasure of knowledge and wisdom that need to be understood from its bottom to top.

            Gandhiji compares modern civilization to the past one. He finds that modern civilization is based on materials. He says,

“Modern Civilization is a curse in Europe as also in India.
 War is the direct result of modern civilization.”


            Lastly, Mahatma Gandhi gives a message of living together with harmony and peace. He says that everyone has understood his own responsibility and duty towards his nation and he or she must be true, upright determined, devoted, and honest regarding their duties and responsibilities their duties and responsibilities, then only we can make this nation more glorious and more beautiful.

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