Indian aesthetics

Mahabharata The Dicing

Mahabharata By The Veda Vyasa The Dicing Dark Part

Mahabharata The Dicing
Mahabharata The Dicing


            “The Dicing” and “The Sequel to the Dicing” set the background for the Kurukshetra war in the Mahabharata. The Mahabharata originally written by Sage Veda Vyasa, is the largest epic in the world of Literature. It was first written in Sanskrit and later translated by many authors in English. It was composed between 300 BC & 300 AD. It has over 200,000 verse lines, 18 million words and it is believed that it is believed that it could have taken over 600 years to write. It is roughly four times the length of the Ramayana. It was first written by Lord Ganesha, at the request of Vyasa to write the tale as dictated by him.

            The book is divided into a total of 18 chapters (Parva) Vyasa is written this epic in approx. 24,000 lines, under the title ‘Bharata’.

Important Characters of Mahabharata

VyasaNarrator of Mahabharata, father of Pandu & Dhritarashtra.

Bhisma Pitamaha (Ganga Putra)- Stepbrother of Vyasa, the grandfather of Pandavas and the Kauravas (100 brothers).

Pandu – Father of five Pandavas.

Kunti – Wife of Pandu and mother of five Pandavas & Karna.

Dhritarashtra – Born blind king of Hastinapur, father of Kauravas & Duryodhana.

Gandhari – Wife of Dhritarashtra, mother of Kauravas.

Yudhisthira – Eldest son of Kunti and rightful heir to the throne of Hastinapur.

Bhima – Second son of Kunti and Strongest of the Pandavas Brother.

Arjuna – The third son of Kunti, A Key warrior from Pandavas’ side who killed many warriors.

Nakul & Sahadeva  – Pandavas twins brother.

Dropaudi – Wife of Five Pandavas.

Duryodhana – Eldest son of Dhritarashtra and Gandhari.

Dushsasana – Second Eldest son of Dhritarashtra & Gandhari.

Karana – Secret son of Kunti, a Great warrior, friend of Duryodhana.

Drona – Teacher of Pandavas & Kauravas.

Shakuni – Brother of Gandhari and maternal uncle of Kauravas, main villain of Mahabharata.

Krishna (The God) – Avatar of God Vishnu and Supporter of Pandavas.

The Book of The Assembly Hall

            The Book of the Assembly Hall or A Sabha Parva is the pivotal one of the eighteen major books of Mahabharata. It is the second of eighteen books of Mahabharata. It has 10 parts and 81 chapters (9 parts and 72 Chapters). It starts with the description of the palace and assembly hall (Sabha) built by Maya at Indraprastha. It presents the glorious kingdom of Pandavas.

            There are specifically ten sections in The Book of the Assembly Hall. It defines the principles of crime against humanity, where any unharmed human being must also stand up for any evil or injustice inflicted upon the society and people at large.

Draupadi Vastraharan
Draupadi Vastraharan

Introduction Of The Dicing

            The Dicing or The Sequel to the Dicing are two subchapters from the second book, The Book of the Assembly Hall (Sabha Parva). This book is one of the books of Mahabharata written by Sage Veda Vyasa. Mahabharata is the largest epic in the world of literature. It was originally written in Sanskrit and later translated by many authors in English.

            “The Dicing” and “The Sequel to the Dicing” set the background for the Kurukshetra war in the Mahabharata.

The Dicing

            Duryodhana convinces Dhritarastra to offer the Khandava forest to the Pandavas. Initially, it was a useless forest. Maya built a majestic assembly hall in the uncultivated land with his 8000 kinkara rakshasas in 14 days. The useless forest turns into a beautiful kingdom, Indraprastha.

            The Defeat of the Jarasandha who defeated 84 kings, makes Yudhisthira the king of 85 kings. God Krishna suggests that Yudhisthira conduct Rajasuya to declare complete independence from Hastinapura and Celebrate the king’s glory. They invite Duryodhana to the ceremony with other guests. He is jealous to see the magnificent hall. The palace is a palace of illusions. As a result, Duryodhana mistakes a glass floor for a pool, and he falls into a pool Bhima, Arjuna, Draupadi, and other women laugh of him.

            Duryodhana returns home with memories of humiliation. He is distressed and silent. Therefore, his maternal uncle, Shakuni, asks him the reason. Duryodhana reveals the fact that he is jealous of the wealth of the Pandavas and resents that they humiliate him. Shakuni reminds him that the Pandavas are invincible for defeating in war. However, there is one way to snatch their wealth. That is in the game of Dice.

            Shakuni is a master of dicing. Duryodhana asks Dhritarashtra for approval. Dhritarashtra tries to convince his son to listen to the advice of Vidura. The king tells his son that despite having privileges, there is no point in feeling sad. Duryodhana begs his father to approve the game of dice so that Shakuni can take over their wealth.

            Dhritarashtra leaves the decision to Vidhura because he wants to consult with Vidura in this regard. Duryodhana tells him that Vidhura is partial to the Pandavas and will never approve of it. He pressurizes his father to kill himself if it does not happen. Therefore Dhritarastra orders Vidura to invite Yudhisthira to enjoy a family dicing game. Vidhura forbids the king’s proposal because he foresees that this would lead to destruction. Despite his advice, Dhritarashtra orders him to invite the Pandavas to the game.

            Vidura reaches Indraprastha and gives the news of the king. Yudhisthira agrees because it is the king’s order. Yudhisthira soon prepares to go to Hastinapur. The Game starts the next day. Shakuni welcomes Yudhisthira to play dice with him. Yudhisthira warns him not to use any trickery in the game. Duryodhana says that Shakuni will play on his behalf. Bhisma, Drona, and others enter the Hall.

            Yudhisthira stakes a hundred thousand gold pieces and loses. After that, he stakes his chariot, a thousand elephants, a hundred thousand male and female slaves, Gandharva horses, his army, and his treasury. Vidura tries to stop the game during the game but to no avail. Despite losing one after another, Yudhisthira keeps staking his people’s property. Nakula, Sahadeva, Arjuna, Bhisma with nothing in hand. Shakuni suggests that he should stake his wife, Draupadi. Everyone in the assembly is shocked to hear that. Unfortunately, he loses her too in the game.

            Duryodhana orders Vidura to bring Draupadi to the hall, but Vidhura denies his order. He tells Dushasana to bring her. Despite Draupadi’s protest, Dushasana drags her by her hair to the hall. Duryodhana asks Dushasana to strip the clothes from the Pandavas and Draupadi. The Pandavas strip off their upper clothes and sit silently.

Dushasana undresses Draupadi. Surprisingly, her clothes are replaced by similar clothes, this is God Krishna’s Grace to Draupadi. The more he tries to undress her the more clothes appear. At last, Dushasana is tired and gives up. Upon the insult of Draupadi, Bhima is in rage and swears that he will drink the blood of Dushasana. Duryodhana exposes his left there to Draupadi and Bhima swears to break his thigh.

            At last, Draupadi complains about the lowness of the Kauravas. Dhritarashtra gives Draupadi two boons. For the first boon, she chooses the freedom of Yudhisthira, and for the second the liberty of the remaining brothers. In this way, Draupadi becomes the saviour of the Pandavas. Dhritarastra wishes Yudhishthira good luck and advises him not to ponder the insult they have faced in the hall. They leave the place and return to Indraprastha.


            Thus, The Dicing scene is used as a metaphor for the struggle between good and evil. Yudhisthira represents Dharma or righteousness, while Duryodhana and Shakuni represent Adharma or Unrighteousness. In the end, Dharma triumphs, but only after a great deal of suffering.

            It is also a reminder of the importance of women’s rights and dignity. Draupadi is a strong and courageous woman, but she is also a victim of male violence and misogyny. The scene is a reminder of the need to protect women and girls from all forms of violence.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

Related Tags: Mahabharata The Dicing, Mahabharat The Dicing Summary, Mahabharata The Dicing pdf

Gitanjali By Rabindranath Tagore

Gitanjali By Rabindranath Tagore

Gitanjali By Rabindranath Tagore
Gitanjali By Rabindranath Tagore


            “Gitanjali” is one of the best-known works of Rabindranath Tagore for which he received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. It is a collection of poems and another title of this collection is “The Song Offerings”. It explores the depths of the human spirit and its connection was published on August 1910, and comprised 157 songs. The English version was released in November 1912 by the India Society of London. It contained translations of 53 poems from the original Bengali Gitanjali, as well as 50 other poems from his drama Achalayantana & other books of poetry – mainly Gitimalya, Naivadya, and Kheya. It had a long introduction by the noted poet W. B. Yeats.

About Rabindranath Tagore

            The poet of the ‘Gitanjali’ Rabindranath Tagore is a great poet, short story writer, singer, translator, social reformer, and philosopher in the modern history of Indian English Literature. It was Tagore who was introduced as the first Asian, who was awarded with Nobel Prize for his famous book ‘Gitanjali” in 1913. He wrote his first poem when he was only 8 years old.

Tagore also wrote the National Anthem of India in 1950, which is Jana, Gana, Mana………… He was referred to as “The Bard of Bengal”. He also wrote the Bangladesh Anthem and Founder of Santiniketan.

Themes Of Gitanjali


            The main theme of Gitanjali is Mysticism. According to Indian Philosophy, mysticism is the highest stage where the human soul is in direct contact with God. A mystic thinks that the world we see with our eyes and ears is not real and that there is a more real-world behind if that can only be understood spiritually, not through the senses. Mysticism is not something that can be explained logically. All mystics try to separate themselves from the outside world and connect with the world inside. This type of mysticism is based on the ideas of renunciation, detachment from the world, and asceticism

            Tagore was influenced by a lot of mystic writers such as – Walt Whitman, Kahil Gibran, and Sri Aurobindo. Still, Tagore’s version of mysticism is a little bit different from the others.


            Gitanjali is God’s prayer. It is a collection of songs about God and praise for him, which was deeply rooted in the ancient tradition of Indian Vaishnava poetry and mystical, eternal, and sublime qualities. They have a wide range of moods and ways of doing things. The theme of God runs through the whole Gitanjali.


            Gitanjali also has a theme about nature. It looks at the connection between God and nature. His lyrics stand out because of how beautiful and full of images they are. These images come from nature and Indian Mythology.


            Gitanjali does not just talk about the relationship between a man’s soul and God. It also talks about the relationship between a man’s soul and God. It also talks about the relationship between a man’s soul and other men. It stands up for the rights of the poor and humble, who are often denied the most essential rights of man.


            At the end of Gitanjali, Tagore also writes about death, and he does so in many different and artistic ways. He doesn’t fear death. Instead, he looks forward to it with joy because it’s the only way to be with God. He said,

“Death looks scary but it brings the soul of a person to a meeting with the eternal.”


            There are many kinds of love in Gitanjali, including love for women, love for other people, love for humanity, love for God, love for beauty, and love for truth. Tagore is a poet who loves God and religion, and his poetry shows the world’s truth, happiness, and beauty. He wrote,

“Love is the only reality and it is eternal. All else is maya, illusion.”

Tagore’s philosophy of life in Gitanjali

            Tagore’s Gitanjali is a collection of poems that reflects his personal philosophy of life. It is a deeply spiritual work that celebrates the beauty of the world and the unity of all beings. Tagore believed that we should live our lives in harmony with nature. He saw nature as a manifestation of the divine and he believed that we can learn to connect with God through our appreciation of the natural world. He wrote,

“Where the mind is without fear and
 the head is held high;

Where the knowledge is free;
Where the world has not been
broken up into fragments by
narrow domestic walls;

Where words come out from
the depth of truth.”

            Tagore’s philosophy of life is also reflected in his emphasis on the importance of compassion and service to others. He believed that we should all strive to make the world a better place for everyone. He wrote:

“I shall never be afraid to ask for blessing, and
 I shall never feel ashamed to beg for love.”

            In the modern days of nihilism and despair the poems in ‘Gitanjali’ offer a kind of ‘faith and optimism’. Man can get rid of all kinds of despair and suffering, if he sacrifices himself to God. God will then carry his burden of life. The poet says this in his song.

“Leave all thy burden on his hands
 who can bear all, and never look
behind I regret.”

            Humanization of the divine is one of the significant aspects of Tagore’s poetry. God is presented as existing among the simple, poor, and humble people. So to ignore them is to ignore God. For example

“Here is thy footstool and
 there rest thy feet where
 live the poorest and
 lowliest and lost.”

            Tagore uses a wide range of vivid and picturesque images and symbols that are drawn from everyday life as well as from age-old myths. For example –

“This little flute of a reed
  thou host carried over
  hills and dales, and host
  breathed through eternally new”

            Human existence is compared to a flute through which God creates a new Melody.

            Material desires and ego are the main barriers in the path towards God. Man is chained by shackles of desire and ego. Until and unless he sacrifices his desires, he cannot have a glimpse of God. In the song No IX, the poet says:

“Thy desire at once put out the light
 from the lamp it touches with its breath.”


            “Gitanjali” is a masterpiece that explores the depths of the human soul, the mysteries of the universe, and the quest for transcendence. Tagore’s poetic brilliance, combined with his profound spirituality, love, and human experience, has created a work that continues to inspire and resonate with readers worldwide. The collection’s translation into various languages further spread its influence, cementing Tagore’s reputation as a poet of global significance.

            Thus, “Gitanjali” stands as a testament to the power of poetry to transcend boundaries and illuminate the timeless truths of human conditions.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.
Now I Remain For Myself By Bahinabai Chaudhari

Now I Remain for Myself by Bahinabai Chaudhari

Now I Remain For Myself By Bahinabai Chaudhari
Now I Remain For Myself By Bahinabai Chaudhari


“Now I Remain for Myself” is a collection of Marathi poems written by Bahinabai Chaudhari, a prominent Indian poetess who comes from the state of Maharashtra. Originally composed in the late 19th century, Chaudhari’s verses beautifully express her personal experiences, emotions, and reflections on various aspects of life.

Bahinabai’s poems reflect her life experiences, her observations of nature, her love for her land and culture, and her wisdom and philosophy. She wrote about the joys and sorrows of a farmer’s life, the festivals and rituals of Maharashtra, the beauty and bounty of nature, and the spiritual quest for self-realization. Her poems are simple, spontaneous, lyrical, and profound. They have a universal appeal and resonate with the common people.

One of her most famous poems is “Now I Remain for Myself” (मी आता माझ्यासाठी राहिले), which expresses her sense of liberation and detachment after losing her husband and children. The poem is written in the first person and has four stanzas of four lines each. The poem has a regular rhyme scheme of abcb in each stanza.

About Bahinbai Chaudhari

Bahinabai Chaudhari was born into a poor and illiterate family of farmers. She was married at the age of 13 to Nathuji Khanderao Chaudhari, who was also a farmer and a poet. She had four sons and two daughters, but only one son survived. Her husband died when she was 30 years old, leaving her alone to manage the farm and the household.

Bahinabai Chaudhari learned to read and write from her husband, who encouraged her to compose poems. She wrote about her daily life, her joys and sorrows, her love and devotion for her husband, her struggles and hardships as a farmer, and her observations of nature and society. She also wrote about her spiritual beliefs and her devotion to Lord Vitthal, a form of Vishnu worshipped by the Varkari sect.

Bahinabai Chaudhari’s poems were not written down by herself but were memorized and recited by her son Madhusudan, who later published them in various magazines and books. Her poems became popular among the masses as well as the literary circles, and she received recognition and appreciation from eminent writers and critics such as N.C. Kelkar, V.S. Khandekar, P.K. Atre, and Sane Guruji.

Themes Of Now I Remain For Myself

Nature and Rural Life

Chaudhari’s poems often celebrate the beauty of nature and capture the essence of rural life. She vividly describes the changing seasons, the agricultural activities, and the natural elements surrounding her, reflecting a deep connection to the land and its rhythms.

Feminine Sensibilities

 Chaudhari’s poetry portrays women’s experiences, emotions, and struggles in a patriarchal society. She addresses themes such as love, marriage, motherhood, and societal expectations, offering a glimpse into the complex inner world of women during her era.

Spirituality and Devotion

 Deeply religious, Chaudhari’s verses frequently convey her devotion to the divine. She explores faith, spirituality, and the pursuit of inner peace, infusing her work with a sense of spiritual transcendence.

Summary Of Now I Remain For Myself

The poem begins with the speaker lamenting the loss of her husband, who was her companion and support in life. She feels like a bird whose nest has been destroyed by a storm. She wonders how she will survive without him, who will take care of her, and who will share her joys and sorrows. She feels like she has lost everything and has no purpose in life.

In the first stanza, the speaker says that she has now remained for herself after losing her husband and children. She says that she has no one to call her own or to care for her. She says that she has become free from all worldly attachments and expectations.

In the second stanza, the speaker says that she has now become indifferent to praise or blame, happiness or sorrow, honor or dishonor. She says that she has transcended all dualities and distinctions. She says that she has attained a state of peace and equanimity.

In the third stanza, the speaker says that she has now realized her true self, which is beyond birth and death, name and form, time and space. She says that she has merged with the supreme reality, which is eternal, blissful, and pure. She says that she has become one with God.

In the fourth stanza, the speaker says she has become free from all desires and fears. She says that she has no need for anything or anyone. She says that she has reached the ultimate goal of life.

Analysis Of Now I Remain For Myself

The poem is a remarkable expression of the poet’s spiritual journey from grief to liberation. The poem shows how the poet transformed her suffering into an opportunity for self-discovery and enlightenment. The verse also shows how the poet embraced the philosophy of Vedanta, which teaches that the true self is identical to Brahman, the supreme reality.

The poem uses simple words and images to convey profound truths. The poet uses metaphors such as “the world’s net” (जगाचा जाळा) to describe the bondage of worldly attachments, “the sky’s limit” (आकाशाचा थोर) to describe the transcendence of time and space, and “the ocean’s shore” (समुद्राचा किनारा) to describe the attainment of bliss and peace.

The poem also uses repetition to emphasize the poet’s transformation. The phrase “now I remain for myself” (मी आता माझ्यासाठी राहिले) is repeated at the beginning of each stanza to mark the contrast between her past and present state. The phrase “now I have” (मला आता) is repeated at the end of each line in the third stanza to show her realization of her true self.

She concludes the poem by saying that now she remains for herself, but not in a selfish or egotistic way. She says that she remains for herself as a part of the whole creation, as a drop of water in the ocean, as a ray of light in the sun, as a flower in the garden. She says that she remains for herself as an expression of God’s beauty and bliss.

The poem is also notable for its feminist perspective that challenges the patriarchal norms and values of Indian society. Bahinabai Chaudhari expresses her autonomy and agency as a woman who has survived many hardships and oppressions. She rejects the roles and duties that are imposed on women by men and society. She claims her right to live according to her own will and desire. She affirms her dignity and worth as a human being who has a unique identity and voice.


The poem is a powerful testimony of Bahinabai Chaudhari‘s courage, wisdom, and spirituality. It shows how she overcame her grief and suffering by finding meaning and joy in herself and in God. It shows how she challenged the norms and expectations of society by asserting her individuality and freedom. It shows how she celebrated her womanhood and humanity by embracing her nature and spirit. The poem is also an inspiration for women who seek to assert their individuality and freedom in a male-dominated world.

The poem is also an inspiration for anyone who seeks to overcome suffering and find meaning in life.

Poem Short Version

Now I remain for myself,
No one to blame or praise,
No one to love or hate,
No one to please or displease.

I am my own master,
I am my own guide,
I am my own friend,
I am my own judge.

I am free to choose my own path,
I am free to follow my own dreams,
I am free to be myself.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.
Indian Civilization And Culture

Indian Civilization and Culture Summary By  Mahatma Gandhi | Indian Civilization By Mahatma Gandhi

Indian Civilization And Culture
Indian Civilization And Culture


            Indian Civilization and Culture is a wonderful piece of writing which is written by a great leader and a Patriotic of India Mahatma Gandhi, full name Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi. He is popularly known as Bapu or the Father of The Nation. He was born in Porbandar, Gujrat on 2 October 1869. He was more of a spiritual leader than a politician. He successfully used truth and nonviolence as the chief weapon against British Rule in India and helped India gain Independence from 1915 till 1948, he completely dominated Indian Politics. He is known for his teaching for this teaching of non-violence, brotherhood, equality, and truth.

About Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader in India, known for his enormous achievements and unwavering commitment to social justice. He inspired people across the world to stand against exploitation and fight for freedom and led India to independence through peaceful means. Gandhi was a skilled communicator, using his mastery of the English language to write works of excellence and share his thoughts with the world. His autobiography, “My Experiment with Truth,” remains an important document of his life and philosophy.

Gandhiji On Indian Civilization

            The present extract on Indian Civilization and Culture gives much emphasis on the beauty and the glory of our Indian Civilization and Culture. In this extract, the writers try to compare Indian Civilization and Culture to foreign cultures and Civilizations.

            The Indian Civilization is unparalleled and can not be beaten in the world. The seeds of Indian Civilization shown by our ancestors were deep-rooted. They had developed miraculously in a big tree with many of its branches spread over the heart of India. Rome, Greece, and many other centers of ancient civilization were diminishers or no longer exist in their former glory. Gandhi ji says the human mind is like a restless bird. The more it gets the more it wants. That is why human beings remained unsatisfied. Wealth and Poverty can not be the subject of happiness and sorrow.

            After making a comparison we find that Indian Culture and Civilization are far better and richer than any other Culture and Civilization in the world. Indian Culture is rich and beautiful in many aspects. It is true that the West is ahead of us in terms of discovery and Technology. It is also true that western techniques and technology gave us a lot of things to us. Western civilization has given Literature to the entire world. Mahatma Gandhi was not a hater of westernization. He too admits that we learn so many things from the West. He actually wants to suggest that we should not forget our own culture.

            Mahatma Gandhi also says that learning from the west is not bad but imitating the whole thing from other cultures and civilizations may damage the infinite beauty and glory of our own culture and civilization. The diversity and pluralism of India have their strength and beauty which maintain the perfect peace and harmony among the people of different castes and religions.

            Mahatma Gandhi nicely portrays the seeds of Indian Civilization as shown by our ancestors. Its foundation is so strong and nothing in the world can beat it. Many civilizations in the world were born and lost with the passage of time but Indian Civilization is unaffected and still glittering like pure ornaments. The writer is very upset when he sees the young people, who are completely dependent on the shines of materialists of the west instead of understanding the true beauty of our own culture and Civilization.

            He simply suggests to the people of India that India is a treasure of knowledge and wisdom that need to be understood from its bottom to top.

            Gandhiji compares modern civilization to the past one. He finds that modern civilization is based on materials. He says,

“Modern Civilization is a curse in Europe as also in India.
 War is the direct result of modern civilization.”


            Lastly, Mahatma Gandhi gives a message of living together with harmony and peace. He says that everyone has understood his own responsibility and duty towards his nation and he or she must be true, upright determined, devoted, and honest regarding their duties and responsibilities their duties and responsibilities, then only we can make this nation more glorious and more beautiful.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

– Varsha Singh

A River By A. K. Ramanujan

A River By A. K. Ramanujan Summary

A River By A. K. Ramanujan
A River By A. K. Ramanujan


            The poem “A River” is written by ‘A. K. Ramanujan’ is a great Indian English poet, professor, translator, playwright, and scholar. He wrote in both English and Kannada. He was awarded “Padma Shri” in 1976 and the “Sahitya Akademi” Award posthumously in 1999 for his literary works. Ramanujan published two volumes of Poems ‘The Striders’ and ‘The Relation’. The Poem “A River” appeared in ‘The Striders’ in 1966.

About A. K. Ramanujan

A.K. Ramanujan was a great Indian Poet, translator, and scholar of Indian Literature and linguistics. He was born in Mysore, Karnataka, to a Brahmin family that loved and encouraged learning. He was fluent in many languages including English, Kannada, and Tamil. Ramanujan was also awarded “Sahitya Akademi Award” posthumously in 1999 for “The Collected Poems”. His notable works include The Stories, Second Sight, A River, and Relations.

A River Poem Summary

            “A River” poem is about a riven “Vaikai” which flows through the city of Madurai, which is situated in Tamil Nadu. It is a holy city, full of temples and poets. The poets of ancient times, as well as modern times, have written poems on this city and its temples. They have also written about the river and floods. ‘Ramanujan’ first talks about the beauty of the river and then tell how it killed people. The poem is divided into four stanzas and each stanza has a different line length.

             In the first stanza poet says Madurai is the city of temples and many poets write about the beauty of the city, its temples, and its river which dries up making the sand visible. In the summer the water flows in small streams. As the water flows in small streams, the sand looks like the ‘ribs of humans’. In addition to the sand, there are straws and woman’s hair under the bridges – having rusting bars which obstruct the free flow of water. There are also wet stones which are shining and look like sleeping crocodiles and those which are dry seem to be like water buffaloes without hair relaxing in the sun.

            However other poets have written only about two seasons that is summer and raining for describing their beauty. They have not brought to their verses what loss has been inflicted on the people because of the rainy seasons.

            In the second stanza, the poet says that he has seen that incident when there was a flood. It also carried off three village houses, a pregnant woman, and a couple of cows which were named Gopi and Brinda. Poet further says, in the new poet and the old poets, no one ever talked about the pregnant woman.

            The poet imagines that the twins were kicking at the while to escape but couldn’t and were ultimately drowned to death with their mother. The other poets never brought this tragic incident into their poems.

            In the last stanza, according to the poet, the river is poetic and can be romanticized only once in a year, and then in just half an hour, it takes away 3 houses, a couple of cows, and a pregnant woman who was expecting twins having fair bodies and also was thinking of having diapers of different colours. So as to distinguish between them.

            The last stanza thus compares the contrasts of the writing of the poet himself and another poet of his age. All the other poets try to praise the beauty of the river and on the other hand, the poet himself makes a balance between the beauty and the losses inflicted on the people by it.  


           Thus, the poem “A River” shows the insensitive attitude and the complete unconcern of the city poets, both the old and new, towards the tragic situation of human suffering and fatality.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

– Varsha Singh