The Bangle Sellers By Sarojini Naidu

The Bangle Sellers Summary, Themes & Analysis Sarojini Naidu

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

The Bangle Sellers Summary, Themes & Analysis Sarojini Naidu Read More »

Gitanjali By Rabindranath Tagore

Gitanjali By Rabindranath Tagore

Gitanjali By Rabindranath Tagore
Gitanjali By Rabindranath Tagore


            “Gitanjali” is one of the best-known works of Rabindranath Tagore for which he received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. It is a collection of poems and another title of this collection is “The Song Offerings”. It explores the depths of the human spirit and its connection was published on August 1910, and comprised 157 songs. The English version was released in November 1912 by the India Society of London. It contained translations of 53 poems from the original Bengali Gitanjali, as well as 50 other poems from his drama Achalayantana & other books of poetry – mainly Gitimalya, Naivadya, and Kheya. It had a long introduction by the noted poet W. B. Yeats.

About Rabindranath Tagore

            The poet of the ‘Gitanjali’ Rabindranath Tagore is a great poet, short story writer, singer, translator, social reformer, and philosopher in the modern history of Indian English Literature. It was Tagore who was introduced as the first Asian, who was awarded with Nobel Prize for his famous book ‘Gitanjali” in 1913. He wrote his first poem when he was only 8 years old.

Tagore also wrote the National Anthem of India in 1950, which is Jana, Gana, Mana………… He was referred to as “The Bard of Bengal”. He also wrote the Bangladesh Anthem and Founder of Santiniketan.

Themes Of Gitanjali


            The main theme of Gitanjali is Mysticism. According to Indian Philosophy, mysticism is the highest stage where the human soul is in direct contact with God. A mystic thinks that the world we see with our eyes and ears is not real and that there is a more real-world behind if that can only be understood spiritually, not through the senses. Mysticism is not something that can be explained logically. All mystics try to separate themselves from the outside world and connect with the world inside. This type of mysticism is based on the ideas of renunciation, detachment from the world, and asceticism

            Tagore was influenced by a lot of mystic writers such as – Walt Whitman, Kahil Gibran, and Sri Aurobindo. Still, Tagore’s version of mysticism is a little bit different from the others.


            Gitanjali is God’s prayer. It is a collection of songs about God and praise for him, which was deeply rooted in the ancient tradition of Indian Vaishnava poetry and mystical, eternal, and sublime qualities. They have a wide range of moods and ways of doing things. The theme of God runs through the whole Gitanjali.


            Gitanjali also has a theme about nature. It looks at the connection between God and nature. His lyrics stand out because of how beautiful and full of images they are. These images come from nature and Indian Mythology.


            Gitanjali does not just talk about the relationship between a man’s soul and God. It also talks about the relationship between a man’s soul and God. It also talks about the relationship between a man’s soul and other men. It stands up for the rights of the poor and humble, who are often denied the most essential rights of man.


            At the end of Gitanjali, Tagore also writes about death, and he does so in many different and artistic ways. He doesn’t fear death. Instead, he looks forward to it with joy because it’s the only way to be with God. He said,

“Death looks scary but it brings the soul of a person to a meeting with the eternal.”


            There are many kinds of love in Gitanjali, including love for women, love for other people, love for humanity, love for God, love for beauty, and love for truth. Tagore is a poet who loves God and religion, and his poetry shows the world’s truth, happiness, and beauty. He wrote,

“Love is the only reality and it is eternal. All else is maya, illusion.”

Tagore’s philosophy of life in Gitanjali

            Tagore’s Gitanjali is a collection of poems that reflects his personal philosophy of life. It is a deeply spiritual work that celebrates the beauty of the world and the unity of all beings. Tagore believed that we should live our lives in harmony with nature. He saw nature as a manifestation of the divine and he believed that we can learn to connect with God through our appreciation of the natural world. He wrote,

“Where the mind is without fear and
 the head is held high;

Where the knowledge is free;
Where the world has not been
broken up into fragments by
narrow domestic walls;

Where words come out from
the depth of truth.”

            Tagore’s philosophy of life is also reflected in his emphasis on the importance of compassion and service to others. He believed that we should all strive to make the world a better place for everyone. He wrote:

“I shall never be afraid to ask for blessing, and
 I shall never feel ashamed to beg for love.”

            In the modern days of nihilism and despair the poems in ‘Gitanjali’ offer a kind of ‘faith and optimism’. Man can get rid of all kinds of despair and suffering, if he sacrifices himself to God. God will then carry his burden of life. The poet says this in his song.

“Leave all thy burden on his hands
 who can bear all, and never look
behind I regret.”

            Humanization of the divine is one of the significant aspects of Tagore’s poetry. God is presented as existing among the simple, poor, and humble people. So to ignore them is to ignore God. For example

“Here is thy footstool and
 there rest thy feet where
 live the poorest and
 lowliest and lost.”

            Tagore uses a wide range of vivid and picturesque images and symbols that are drawn from everyday life as well as from age-old myths. For example –

“This little flute of a reed
  thou host carried over
  hills and dales, and host
  breathed through eternally new”

            Human existence is compared to a flute through which God creates a new Melody.

            Material desires and ego are the main barriers in the path towards God. Man is chained by shackles of desire and ego. Until and unless he sacrifices his desires, he cannot have a glimpse of God. In the song No IX, the poet says:

“Thy desire at once put out the light
 from the lamp it touches with its breath.”


            “Gitanjali” is a masterpiece that explores the depths of the human soul, the mysteries of the universe, and the quest for transcendence. Tagore’s poetic brilliance, combined with his profound spirituality, love, and human experience, has created a work that continues to inspire and resonate with readers worldwide. The collection’s translation into various languages further spread its influence, cementing Tagore’s reputation as a poet of global significance.

            Thus, “Gitanjali” stands as a testament to the power of poetry to transcend boundaries and illuminate the timeless truths of human conditions.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

Gitanjali By Rabindranath Tagore Read More »

Post-Independence Indian English Poetry

Post Independence Indian English Poetry | Indian English Poets

Post-Independence Indian English Poetry
Post-Independence Indian English Poetry


           Indian English Poetry after independence is known as post-independence Indian English poetry. Post-independence Indian English poetry witnessed the most crucial developments. India has been addressed by many prolific writers, who influenced entire generations. It is the field of lots of authors who have greatly contributed in terms of post-independence poetry.

Some of them worth mentioning are –

  1. Nissim Ezekiel
  2. Dominic Francis Moraes
  3. Purushottam Lal
  4. A. K. Ramanujam
  5. Gieve Patel
  6. Jayant Mahapatra 
  7. K. N. Daruwala
  8. Kamla Das

Nissim Ezekiel

            Nissim Ezekiel is one of the most notable among the new post-independence Indian English poets. He was also known as a great poet, actor, playwright, editor, and art critic. He received Sahitya Akademi Award in 1983 for his poetry collection Latler Day Psalms. He also received Padmashri Award in 1988. His poetry is very famous such as – The Night Scorpion, Time to Change, Sixty Poem, and The Unsatisfied Man.

Dominic Francis Moraes

            Dominic Francis Moraes popularly known as Dom Moraes. He was a famous Indian writer and poet who published nearly 30 books in English. He was also known as a great editor and edited magazines in London, Hong Kong, and New York. He became the first Indian Editor of The Times of India after independence. Some notable works are – A Beginning, My son’s Father, Never at Home, etc. He also won Sahita Akademi Award for English.

Purushottam Lal

            Purushottam Lal is commonly known as P. Lal. He was an Indian poet, essayist, translator, and professor. He founded the writer’s workshop in Calcutta. He is best known for translating of the famous Indian Epic Mahabharata into English. He wrote 8 books of poetry, over a dozen volumes of literary criticism as well a dozen of translations from another language into English.

A. K. Ramanujam

               A. K. Ramanujam’s full name is Attipate Krishnaswami Ramanujam. He was an Indian poet and scholar of Indian Literature, who wrote in both language English and Kannada. His poem explore family relationships between mother and son, Father and Son, Husband, and Wife. He was awarded +Sahitya Akademi Award for the collected poems. He was also awarded Padma Shree for his works. Some notable works are – The Striders, Second sight, and The interior Landscape.

Gieve Patel

            Gieve Patel is a great Indian poet, playwriter, painter as well as physician. He belongs to a group of Green Movement writers, which are involved in the effort to protect the environment. His poems speak of deep concern for nature.

Jayant Mahapatra

            Jayant Mahapatra needed no introduction, he was the first Indian English poet to receive the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1981. He was also awarded Padma Shri in 2009, but for some reason, he returned Padma Shri. He has written 18 books of poems. His notable works are Indian Summer and Hunger, A Father Hours, and Waiting.

K. N. Daruwala

            K. N. Daruwala is an Indian poet and short story writer in English. He is also a former Indian Police Service (IPS) Officer. He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1984 for his poetry collection, The Keeper Of The Dead. Some notable works are – The Dance Of Peacock, Crossing of Rivers, A Summer of Tiger, and so on.

Kamla Das

          Kamla Das popularly known by her one-time pet name Madhavikutty was an Indian poet in English and Malayalam literature. Some famous collections are – Summer In Calcutta, Yaa Allah, Only the Soul Knows How to Sing, and so on. He received Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award, Ason World Prize, and Asian Poetry Prize as well.


Indian English Literature is highly indebted to the post-Independence Indian English Poets, which have been Nissim Ezekiel, Dominic Francis Moraes, Purushottam Lal, A. K. Ramanujam, Gieve Patel, Jayant Mahapatra, K. N. Daruwala, Kamla Das, etc.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

– Varsha Singh

Post Independence Indian English Poetry | Indian English Poets Read More »

The Waste Land By T S Eliot

The Waste Land By T. S. Eliot | The Waste Land Poem Analysis

The Waste Land By T S Eliot
The Waste Land By T S Eliot


            T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land has a special position in the history of English Poetry. It is one of the most famous poems of the 20th century. The poem is written in five parts and is often called, a poem in five fragments, but all the parts are connected with the theme of the disillusionment of a Generation and the Futility of Moden life. The poem became famous due to the techniques that Eliot used to convey his message. The poem was published in 1922. It was the time of Modernism. Modernism was a movement in which artists and writers tried to find novel methods of observation, new methods of getting knowledge, and leaving behind every established rule. The Poem The Waste Land is written in the full spirit of Modernism.

The poem “The Waste Land” is divided into five parts:

  • The Burial of the Dead
  • A Game of Chess
  • The Fire Sermon
  • Death by Water
  • What the Thunder Said

. It opens with an intriguing epigraph dedicated to Ezra Pound It consists of 434 lines and it’s regarded as one of the longest poems, if not the longest, in English literature. It is a highly complex poem

About T. S. Eliot

T. S. Eliot, full name Thomas Strean Eliot was one of the significant poets of the 20th Century. There are descriptions of modern society in his poems. He received the Nobel Prize in 1948. He was a keen student of philosophy and took an exceptional interest in Indian and Hindu philosophy. In 1911 he wrote his first major poem The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock. Among his world-famous poem included – The Waste Land, Ash Wednesday, Four Quartets, The Journey of the Magi, The Hollow Men, Morning at the Window, Little Gidding, and The Hippopotamus.

Themes Of the Poem

The Waste Land had five main themes:

  1. Death, that is not only physical but also Spiritual and Moral.
  2. “Loss of High Culture” because modern man does not have faith in the culture and traditions of his past.
  3. Rebirth, the image of barren and dry land brings hopelessness to the poem but is countered by the hopeful image of “Rebirth”.
  4. Physical Love, there is a lot of love relations shown in the poem.
  5. Spiritual Dryness, the modern man is breathing and walking but does not have the spiritual element intact. He is Spiritual Dry.

Analysis Of The Waste Land

            At the first of the poem an aristocratic lady, she talks about her happy past days. After the speaker talks about the image of love in modern times, which is fixed upon lust and physical needs only. It is no spirituality left in it. The next speaker talks about a woman who is a card reader named Madame Sosostris. She foreshadows that water will bring death and that men should fear it. She also talks about how she is forced to carry out her business in secret.

            The scene changes again, and the speaker describes the condition of ordinary men in modern times. He says that a lot of people are walking in the streets of London, but they have lost their vitality. They seem alive but are dead inside. The speaker then recollects a meeting with a soldier during a war. One soldier asks the other whether the corpse he buried in his garden has sprouted or not.

            The next section, A Game of Chess opens with a description of a well do lady and the room she is sitting in. The room is laden with a lot of beauty products and perfumes. She is sitting on a burnished chair waiting for someone scattered among the artificial objects of ornamentation, there are a few glimpses of the past. When the person whom she is waiting for arrives, they indulge in meaningless dialogue.

            In the next section, the speaker discussed a meeting of two underprivileged ladies sitting in a bar. They are talking about a woman name Lil. She says that her husband is returning after a long time serving in the army. They show their concern about their appearance of Lil as she has not treated her teeth and has lost her charm.

            Therefore, they think that her husband will try to find recompense in other women. While these women are talking, the keeper of the bar repeatedly tells them to hurry up because the time is over. Towards, the end, the two women depart.

            The third section named “The Fire Sermon” opens with the description of a dirty place by a riverside. The river is filled with garbage and rats are pushing themselves here and there. The speaker tries to catch fish in this river and thinks about his father and brother. He recalls how both of them died in the same manner. In the next setting, the speaker narrates an event when he was invited to homosexuality. He says that a merchant gave him the offer to have dinner with him and spend the weekend with him.

            The next speaker narrates about a hectic day for a female typist. She is a young lady and works till late. She comes home after work and the dirty dishes from breakfast wait for her in her room. She cleans the mess and waits for her lover. The lover comes, and they indulge in sexual activities. The typist shows no emotion when the deed is being done.

            At the end of this section, there is the happier image of a church, a bar, and the river Thames. The speaker recalls the love affair between “The Earl of Leicester and Queen Elizabeth”. Then, there is a confession of the lady of modern times who talks about her affairs with many men.

            The fourth Section is named Death By Water. The speaker says that Phlebas the Phoenician has died by drowning in water and that his body has lost connection with the outside world. In the same manner, the speaker warns, the reader’s bodies will lose connection with the world and they will die. Therefore they should remember their own deaths.

            In the Last Section named What The Thunder Said the speaker talks about the condition of modern man. He says that modern men move around in cities but have lost their human vitality. They are unreal human beings. They might walk and work like living humans but they are dead from the inside. Therefore, cities like London, Vienna, Athens, Jerusalem, and Alexandria, where these unreal humans live, have also become unreal.

            Suddenly the speaker describes the condition of the east. He says that it is going to rain near the Ganges. Here the three aspects of thunder according to Hindu mythology are introduced. The first means “Give”, the second means “Sympathize” and the third means “Control”. The poem ends with the repetition of the word “Shantih”.

“Datta, Dayadhvam and Damyanta
Shantih, Shantih, Shantih”.


So, The Waste Land is still the most influential poem of our age: “nothing else so truly reflects the age and redeems it.” F.R. Leavis, Matthiessen, and Cleanth Brooks, the distinguished critics of the present age, have penetrated into The Waste Land and have of the opinion that The Waste Land is a highly condensed epic of the modern age. Cleanth Brooks remarks that the poem is:

“a sigh for the vanished glory of the past;
the living death of the modern waste landers”.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

– Varsha Singh

The Waste Land By T. S. Eliot | The Waste Land Poem Analysis Read More »