Theatre Of The Absurd

Theatre Of The Absurd “Absurdist”

Theatre Of The Absurd
Theatre Of The Absurd


            The term “Theatre of The Absurd” was first derived by Albert Camus in an essay, ‘The Myth of Sisyphus’ (1942) in which he derived the philosophy of the absurd. According to Camus, this philosophy says,

“Mom is trying to pursue the
 meaning of life and this
 pursuance has no meaning
 in its own. So the men
 quest for the existence and
 to derive meaning for life is
 meaningless and is of no use.”

            Later in 1961, this term was coined by “Martin Esslin” in his book “Theatre of Absurd”. It is a literary movement that began with a group of dramatists around the 1950s and continued till the 1980s. It was the death of Samuel Beckett in 1989 that marked the end of this movement. This literary movement spread across America and Other European countries during the 1950s to 1960s. It is the movement that simply expresses the thought of human existence that has no meaning or purpose. In it, the playwright also discussed the changed behavior of human beings which they saw in their surroundings, because of the impact of World War II.

Definition Of The Theatre of the Absurd

Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines the term as,

“Theatre that seeks to represent
 the absurdity of human existence
 in a meaningless universe by
 bizarre or fantastic means.”

History Of The Theatre of The Absurd

            This movement influenced by existentialism, began in the form of experimental theatre in Paris and consequently, the spread of the absurd form in other countries. Absurdist plays were written in French. Absurd elements first came into existence after the rise of Greek Drama in the plays of ‘Aristophanes’ in the form of Wild humor and buffoonery of the old comedy.

            Then, morality plays of the Middle Ages can also be called a precursor of ‘The Theatre of the Absurd’. In 19th century. Ibsen and Strindberg also included some elements of absurd theatre in their plays, but the real precursor of the present Theatre of Absurd is ‘Alfred Jerry’s play ‘Ubu Roi’.

            World War II finally brought the Theatre of Absurd to life because the Chaotic atmosphere during that time was compelling them to think about their absurd existence.

Features & Characteristics of the Theatre of the Absurd

  • Absence of a real story or plot.
  • No action since all actions are insignificant.
  • The value of language is reduced, in fact, what happens on the stage transcends and often contradicts, the words spoken by the characters.
  • Extensive use of pauses, silences, miming, and absurd situations reflect a sense of anguish.
  • Incoherent babbling makes up the dialogue.

Characteristics and Features in Detail

            Following are the chief characteristics of the Theatre of Absurd, but all these characteristic cannot necessarily be found in all the absurdist play because it is not necessary that the playwright must have used all the characteristic of Absurd plays:

1. Questions of Existence

                        Absurd plays raise some basic questions of existence like why we are alive, why we have to die, and why there is injustice and suffering.

2. Distrust In Language

                        For the absurdist playwrights, language is only a meaningless communication and stereotyped exchange of Ideas because words fail to express the essence of human existence.

3. Illogical Speeches and Meaningless Plots

                              Through illogical speeches and meaningless plots, they wish to establish a feeling of freedom to make their own words. Dr. Culik Says,

“Rationalist thought, like language,
 Only deals with the superficial
 aspects of things, Nonsense,
 On the other hand, opens up a
 glimpse of the infinite.”

4. Re-establishment of Man’s communion with the Universe

                        They attempt to restore the importance of myth and rituals in the life of man and make them aware of the ultimate realities of their life.

5. Emphasis on Abstract values of Life

                        Absurdists force us to look at our abstract values of life like love and family. Thus, we may hope to accept the absurdity of life and try to find values in a world devoid of them.

6. Vagueness about Time, Place, and Character

                        Absurdists have no time, place, or character in their plays as they feel that there is no past or future, only the repetition of the present.

7. Lack Of communication Amid Characters

                        Each character lives an egoistic life and attempts to get another character to understand him which results in more alienation.

Playwright of Absurd Drama

            Martin Esslin considered four playwrights: – Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Arthur Adamov, and Jean Genet as leaders of the movement. After some time, ‘Harold Pinter’ was also introduced to this group, as some of the works of Albert Camus, and Edward Albee.

Samuel Beckett

            Beckett is an Irish dramatist and novelist, who came from an ‘Anglo-Irish’ Protestant family. Beckett uses formless language deliberately to present the absurdity in his work. Some of his highly popularised fiction novels, originally written in French, Scored success are ‘Murphy’. ‘Molloy’ and ‘Watt’ which also follow his story “More Pricks than Kicks”.

            His masterpiece in drama is ‘Waiting For Godot’ which is the English version of the French Play En Attendant Godot’. Beckett also wrote a ‘monologue’. “Krapp’s Last Tape” in which Krapp attempts to recapture the greatness of earlier days by listening to recordings of days when she was young.

Eugene Ionesco

            Ionesco is a Rumanian – French dramatist, write in French. Eugene Ionesco is a central figure in this genre and the foremost figure of the French Avant-Grade Theatre. His plays basically focus on criticizing the meaningless existence of human beings while offering a subtle solution to change this situation. In Rhinoceros, Ionesco tries to build hope at the end of the play by making Berenger, the protagonist, stick to his human self and not follow the mass movement.

            His famous works are ‘The Bald Prima’, ‘The Lesson’, ‘The Chair’ an absurdist tragic force, ‘The Killer’, ‘Rhinoceros’, ‘The Victim of Duty’, ‘How to Ged Rid of It’, and ‘Macbeth’ written during the cold war. The Chairs and The Lesson are the most notable works of Ionesco.

Arthur Adamov

            He was a Russian-born dramatist who lived in France and wrote in French Adamov wrote an autobiographical volume L’Avew, where he for the first expressed the deep sense of alienation, one of the significant features of ‘Theatre of the Absurd’.

            Some of his famous plays are ‘La Paradise’, ‘Professor Taranne’, ‘Le Ping-Pong’, and ‘Printemps 71’.

Jean Genet

            A famous French novelist, dramatist, and poet. Genet’s contribution can be classified both as an Absurd dramatist and as a follower of Art and in his ritualistic ‘Theatre Of Cruelty’.

            His very famous plays are “Deathwatch”, “The Maids”, “The Balcony”, and “The Screens.”

Harold Pinter

            Pinter was a great English Playwright screenwriter, Director, Actor, and a Novel Prize winner for literature in 2005. Harold Pinter became the most influential modern British dramatist. His writing career continued for more than 50 years. His early works were described by critics as “Comedy of Menace”.

            His first full-length play was ‘The Birthday Party (1958)’, which ran for three nights in London. It later made a strong impression on Television and was successfully re-staged in 1964.

            Printer’s other most famous works are “The Room”, “The Homecoming”, and “Betray.”

Some of his one-act plays are ‘The Dumb Waiter’, ‘A Slight Ache’, ‘The Collection, and The Lover’ which have been produced in the theatre.

Albert Camus

            Camus was an Algerian and French philosopher. He was the youngest writer who won the Nobel Prize in 1957 in Literature. His philosophical work came out as absurdism. His essay ‘The Rebel’ which treats both the metaphysical and the historical development of rebellion and revolution in societies, especially in Western Europe.

            ‘The Myth of Sisyphus’ (1942) an essay by Camus, where he described meaningless things happening around him through the concept of ‘absurdism’ and this absurdist concept was first time seen in his work.

Edward Albee

            Edward Albee is an American playwright related to the theatre of the Absurd. He is known for his works written as one-act plays such as ‘As Zoo Story’, ‘The Sandbox’, and ‘The American Dream’. His first full-length play, “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf.”

            He won the Pulitzer Prize for three works – ‘A Delicate Balance’, ‘Three Tall Women’, and ‘Seascape’, written in the form of Drama.

            Besides these, other playwrights like ‘Tom Stoppard’, ‘Arthur Kopit’, ‘Friedrich Durrenmatt’, ‘Fernando Arrabal’, ‘N. E. Simpson’, and also many dramatists associated with this theatre.


            Thus, the Absurdist play or The Theatre of Absurd only demonstrates the absurdity and illogicality of the world in which we live but does not provide any solution to the problem. Through these plays, man is again and again reminded that his existence in the world is in fact absurd and meaningless.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

Theatre Of The Absurd “Absurdist” Read More »

Toril Moi Sexual Textual Politics

Toril Moi Sexual/Textual Politics Who is Afraid of Virginia Woolf

Toril Moi Sexual/Textual Politics
Toril Moi Sexual/Textual Politics


Virginia Woolf is one of the most influential and celebrated writers of the 20th century, but also one of the most misunderstood and misrepresented by some feminist critics. In her essay Who Is Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Toril Moi challenges the negative and reductive readings of Woolf’s work by Elaine Showalter and other Anglo-American feminists and offers a more nuanced and positive perspective on Woolf’s feminism and literary achievements.

Toril Moi Sexual/Textual Politics Analysis And Critical Appreciation

 The essay Who is Afraid of Virginia Woolf by Toril Moi, Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory, was published in 1985. Moi’s essay is a feminist critique of the negative and dismissive readings of Virginia Woolf by some of her Anglo-American feminist successors, especially Elaine Showalter. Moi argues that Showalter and others have misunderstood Woolf’s concept of androgyny and have failed to appreciate her complex and innovative literary techniques. Moi also proposes a different, more positive feminist reading of Woolf, based on a recognition of her radical challenge to patriarchal norms and values.

In her essay “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?”, Toril Moi argues that the title of the play is a question about the fear of female creativity. She argues that Woolf’s work challenges traditional notions of gender and sexuality and that this challenge makes her work threatening to those who benefit from the status quo.

Moi begins her essay by discussing the critical reception of Woolf’s work. She notes that Woolf has been criticized for being too feminine, too intellectual, and too experimental. Moi argues that these criticisms are based on a patriarchal view of art and literature, which privileges male creativity over female creativity.

Moi asking the question posed in the title: who is afraid of Virginia Woolf? She suggests that quite a few feminist critics are because they have found Woolf to be a frivolous bohemian, a negligible Bloomsbury aesthete, or a troubled feminist who fled into androgyny to escape her own painful femaleness. Moi focuses on Showalter’s chapter on Woolf in A Literature of Their Own, which she considers to be representative of the negative feminist response to Woolf.

Moi criticizes Showalter for reducing Woolf’s concept of androgyny to a myth that helped her evade confrontation with her own anger and ambition, and for ignoring the political implications of Woolf’s rejection of gender binaries. Moi also challenges Showalter’s claim that A Room of One’s Own is an extremely impersonal and defensive book, which uses techniques such as repetition, exaggeration, parody, whimsy, and multiple viewpoints to create an illusion of spontaneity and intimacy. Moi contends that these techniques are not mere distractions, but rather essential elements of Woolf’s feminist strategy, which aims to subvert the authority of the male-dominated literary tradition and to open up new possibilities for women writers.

Moi then proceeds to offer an alternative feminist reading of Woolf, which takes into account her historical context, her literary innovations, and her political vision. Moi argues that Woolf was not a liberal humanist who believed in the transcendence of gender differences, but rather a radical feminist who exposed the oppression and violence of patriarchy and who advocated for a transformation of society and culture.

Moi shows how Woolf’s concept of androgyny is not a flight from reality, but a creative resistance to the rigid and hierarchical gender roles imposed by patriarchy. Moi also demonstrates how Woolf’s use of multiple perspectives, irony, parody, and fragmentation is not a sign of weakness, but a powerful way of challenging the monolithic and authoritative discourse of patriarchy and creating new forms of expression and representation for women. Moi concludes her essay by summarizing the main features of the feminist response to Woolf’s writings, which she divides into two categories: those who reject Woolf as irrelevant or reactionary, and those who embrace Woolf as an inspiration and a precursor.

Moi then turns to a close reading of Woolf’s work. She argues that Woolf’s writing is characterized by its fluidity and its refusal to conform to traditional gender roles. Moi also argues that Woolf’s work is deeply political and that it challenges the patriarchal structures of society.

Moi’s essay is an insightful and persuasive analysis of the feminist reception of Woolf’s work, which exposes the limitations and biases of some of the previous readings and offers a more nuanced and appreciative interpretation.

Moi’s essay is also an important contribution to feminist literary theory, which shows how Woolf’s writings can be seen as examples of sexual/textual politics, that is, as interventions in the cultural field that challenge the dominant ideology and create new spaces for women’s voices. Moi’s essay is thus a valuable resource for anyone interested in Virginia Woolf’s life and work, as well as in feminist criticism and theory.

Moi then turns to a close reading of Woolf’s work. She argues that Woolf’s writing is characterized by its fluidity and its refusal to conform to traditional gender roles. Moi also argues that Woolf’s work is deeply political and that it challenges the patriarchal structures of society.

Moi concludes by arguing that Woolf’s work is still relevant today. She argues that Woolf’s work continues to challenge traditional notions of gender and sexuality and that it continues to be a source of inspiration for feminists and other progressives.

Moi’s essay is not only a defense of Woolf’s feminism but also a tribute to her genius and legacy. Moi celebrates Woolf’s courage, honesty, humour, and imagination, and invites us to read her work with fresh eyes and open minds. Moi’s essay is a valuable contribution to the feminist literary theory and criticism of Woolf’s work, and a compelling invitation to revisit one of the greatest writers of all time.


Thus, Moi’s essay is a powerful defense of Woolf’s work and a reminder of the importance of female creativity. Toril Moi‘s Sexual Textual Politics essay Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Feminist Readings of Woolf offers a compelling alternative to Elaine Showalter’s negative critique of Woolf’s essay A Room of One’s Own.

Moi defends Woolf’s feminism and literary innovation by showing how she uses various textual and structural techniques to create a complex and radical message that challenges patriarchal discourse and proposes a new form of subjectivity and community for women writers.

Moi shows how Woolf’s essay is not only a personal testimony but also a political intervention that exposes the material and ideological conditions that oppress women writers and calls for a collective struggle for freedom and creativity.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized English Literature Notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

Related Keyword: Toril moi sexual textual politics summary, Toril Moi Sexual Textual Politics pdf, Toril Moi Sexual Textual Politics literature, toril moi sexual/textual politics, toril moi sexual/ textual politics in English literature, toril moi sexual/ textual politics in literature

Toril Moi Sexual/Textual Politics Who is Afraid of Virginia Woolf Read More »

I. A. Richards As A Critic

I. A. Richards As A Critic | Ivor Armstrong Richards

I. A. Richards As A Critic
I. A. Richards As A Critic


            I. A. Richards is the most influential Critic in twentieth-century Anglo-American Criticism. He along with T. S. Eliot regarded as the founder or father of New Criticism. He was born in 1893. He was a student of Moral Science at Cambridge University and his experience as a teacher proved very fruitful. Among the modern I. A. Richards is the only critic who has formulated a systematic and complete theory of literary art. The study of the text on which new criticism is based was started by no another than Richards himself. All new critics, whether it is John Crow Ranson, Cleanth Brooks, William K Wimsatt, and Robert Penn Warren are much influenced by the work of Ivor Armstrong Richards.

As A Critic Works

            As a critic, I. A. Richards is remembered for five important books, which he wrote either independently or in collaboration with others. Among such books include – The Foundation Of Aesthetics, The Meaning Of Meaning, The Principles of Literary Criticism, Practical Criticism, and Coleridge On Imagination.

            The first book The Foundation Of Aesthetics is published in 1922. It has been written in collaboration with two friends Ogden and James Wood. In this book, Richard tries to give his analysis of the concept of Aesthetic Beauty.

            His second book entitled The Meaning of Meaning was published in 1923. Richard wrote this book too in collaboration with Ogden. In this book, Richard distinguishes between the symbolic use of language in Science and its emotive use in poetry.

            Richard’s third book The Principles of Literary Criticism is the most outstanding work of English Criticism. This book came out in 1924 and created almost a revolution in the field of English Literary Criticism. In this book I. A. Richard formulated a systematic and complete theory of poetry. He also explains his psychological theory of value and explores the emotive language of Poetry.

            Richard’s Practical Criticism was published in 1929 and it is based on his lecture room experiments conducted in Cambridge. According to him a poet writes to communicate and language is the means of that communication language consists of words so the study of words is significant to understand the meaning.

The meaning of words depends on:



By Sense, it meant something that is communicated by the plain literal meaning of the words.


Feeling refers to emotions, emotional attitudes, desire, and will pleasure. Words express feelings.


Tone means the writer’s attitude towards his audience. The writer chooses his words and arranges them keeping in mind the taste of his readers.


Speaker intention or purpose modifies the speech. It is the effects that one tries to produce.

The Sound Of a word has
 much to do with the feeling
 it evokes.”

According to I. A. Richards, There are three types of Good Critic:

Firstly, A Critic should be a learned person. He has strong control over words and the effect they produce.

Secondly, he must be a sound judge of values and have adequate knowledge of psychology.

Thirdly, he must be able to distinguish experiences from one another.

I. A. Richards himself possesses these qualities. Richard did a great service to literary criticism by linking it with psychology.

            His later publication included Coleridge On Imagination published in 1934. I. A. Richard gave us six distinct senses of the word Imagination.

  • Production of Image.
  • The use of figurative Language.
  • The Narrower sense.
  • Inventiveness imagination.
  • The Scientific imagination.
  • The Sense of musical delight.

            In simpler form, I. A. Richards says that a poet arranges his experiences and lays them in a style that is not possible for an ordinary person. So the poet always does it better.


            Thus, we can say that Richard has done a great service to literary criticism by linking it with psychology. A number of scholars have emerged as critics and interpreted literature in order to help a common reader. But I. A. Richards is considered the pioneer of them. His contribution to the field of Criticism is incomparable and his works influenced a lot of modern critics.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

I. A. Richards As A Critic | Ivor Armstrong Richards Read More »

T. S. Eliot As A Critic

T. S. Eliot As A Critic

T. S. Eliot As A Critic
T. S. Eliot As A Critic


         T. S. Eliot is one of the greatest literary critics of England from the point of view of the bulk and quality of his critical writings. T. S. Eliot, full name Thomas Stearns Eliot was also a Poet, Essayist, Publisher, Playwright, Literary critic, and Editor of England. He is considered one of the 20th-century major poets. His five-hundred-one essays published as reviews and articles from time to the time have had a reading influence on literary criticism. Eliot made English criticism look different. His criticism was revolutionary which inverted the critical tradition of the whole of English literature.

John Hayward On T. S. Eliot

John Hayward a famous literary critic and probably known as a friend and advisor of T. S. Eliot says about him:

“I cannot think of a critic who has been
 more widely read and discussed
 in his own lifetime; and not only
 in English but in almost every language,
 expect Russian.

            Eliot’s criticism has revolutionized the great writers of the past three centuries. His recognition of the greatness of the Metaphysical poets of the 17th century resulted in the Metaphysical revival of the 20th century. The credit for the renewal of interest in Jacobean Dramatist goes to Eliot. He has restored Dryden and other Augustan Poets to their place. According to Eliot, the end of criticism is to bring readjustment between the old and the new. He say:

“From time to time it desirable that some critic
  shall appear to review the past of our literature,
  and set the poets and the poems in a new order.”

            Such criticism is rare for they must possess, besides the ability for judgment, powerful liberty of mind to identify and interpret their own values and category of admiration for their generation.

“John Howard,” says:

“Matthew Arnold was such a critic as were Coleridge,
 Johnson and Dryden before him; and such in our own day, is Eliot himself.”

            Eliot’s criticism offers both a reassessment and a reaction to earlier writers. He called himself “a classicist in literature”. His vital contribution is the reaction against “romanticism and Humanism” which brought a classical revival in art and criticism. He rejected the romantic view of the individual’s perfectibility, stressed the doctrine of original sin, and exposed the futility of the romantic faith in the “Inner Voice, A critic must follow objective standards and must conform to tradition. A sense of tradition, respect for order, and authority are central to Eliot’s classicism. In his objectivity and logical attitude Eliot must closely resemble Aristotle.

A.G. George On T. S. Eliot

A. G. George says:

“Eliot’s theory of the impersonality
 is the greatest theory. On the nature 
 of the process after Wordsworth’s
 romantic conception of poetry.”

            Poetry was an expression of the emotions and personality of romantics ‘Wordsworth’ said that “Poetry was an overflow of powerful emotions and its origin is in Emotion’s recollected in tranquility”. Eliot rejects this view and says that poetry is not an expression of emotion and personality but an escape from them. Eliot’s view on the nature of the poetic process is equally revolutionary. According to him, poetry is not inspiration it is organization. The poet’s mind is like a vessel in which are stored numerous feelings emotions and experiences.

            Perfect poetry results when instead of “dissociation of sensibility” there is “Unification of Sensibility”. The critic stressed that the aim of poetry is to give pleasure or to teach morally. Eliot devised numerous critical concepts that gained wide currency and has a brand influence on criticism.

  • Objective co-relative.
  • Dissociation of sensibility.
  • Unification of Sensibility.


  Thus, Eliot’s influence as a critic has been wide constant, fruitful, and inspiring. He has corrected and educated the taste of his readers and brought about a rethinking regarding the function of poetry and the nature of the poetic process. He gave a new direction and new tools for criticism. As a critic, T. S. Eliot was greatest than anyone in English Literature.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

– Varsha Singh

T. S. Eliot As A Critic Read More »

Victorian Women Novelist

Victorian Women Novelist | Victorian era Women | 19th Century Women Novelist

Victorian Women Novelist
Victorian Women Novelist


            The victorian Era (1837-1901) marked a significant age in the field of literature. In the development of the English novel, Victorian women novelists played a very important role. In the Victorian age, women were considered the “angel in the home”: they were educated in order to become good wives but were not sent to the university. They were responsible for the education of children. Many middle and upper-class women were great readers, and there were also some good women writers. The following are the four very most important women novelists among them:

  1. Charlotte Bronte
  2. Emile Bronte
  3. Mrs. Gaskel
  4. George Eliot

Charlotte Bronte

            The three Bronte Sisters-Anne, Charlotte, and Emily are well-known poets and novelists of the Victorian period. They were in actual life shy and isolated girls. They poured their inner life into the mold of the novel. Charlotte Bronte wrote the following four novels:

  • The Professor
  • Villette
  • Jane Eyre
  • Shirley

            She was sensitive, passionate, and sensuous by temperament. The first two novels were based on her personal experience. The Professor her first novel describes the events in the life of a schoolmaster in Brussels city. Her best novel is Jane Eyre. It is about a poor and ugly girl who is treated badly by her cruel aunt.

 According to Compton Rickett, three characteristics of Charlotte’s writing are-

  1. The note of intimacy
  2. The note of passion
  3. The note of revolt

Emily Bronte

            Emily was a poet as well as a novelist and her only novel Wuthering Heights is known as one of the greatest English Literature novels. In this novel Heathcliff a passionate boy falls in love with Catherine but when Catherine marries Edgar. Then Heathcliff being a life of cruelty and revenge. He marries Edgar’s sister and treats her very cruelly. The novel is full of uncontrolled passions and emotions. The story of the novel is connected with two families.

            “Because of its strong emotional quality, Wuthering Heights has been compared to Shakespeare’s, King Lear.”

            In fact, her only novel Wuthering Heights holds an important position in the history of the English novel. In this novel Emily expresses –

“Infinite passion and the pain of finite hearts that yard.”

Mrs. Gaskel

            Mrs. Gaskel was an English novelist, biographer, and story writer. Her novels offer a detailed portrait of the lives of many strata of Victorian Society, including the very poor. Her work is of interest to social historians as well as readers of literature. Her novels divided themselves into two well-defined categories. First, we have the novel life Mary Borton and Noran And South which deals with social and industrial problems. Secondly, we have novels like Cranford, Ruth, Wives and Daughters, and Sylvia’s Lovers are concerned with ruler life.

George Eliot

          George Eliot is one of the most eminent novelists of the Victorian Age. As a novelist, she was one of the greatest Bronte sisters and she was much inspired by Jane Austen of the Romantic age. Her important novels are following

  • The Mill on the Floss
  • Adam Bede
  • Silas Marner
  • Romola
  • Middle March
  • Daniel Deronda
  • Felix Holt

            She wrote her novels in the context of human society and human activities. She won a lot of literary prizes in her life. In Middle March she describes her autobiography, which is known as autobiographical fiction.

            Besides these above Victorian woman novelists, the Victorian era also produced lots of minor Victorian women novelists such as – Mrs. Trollope, Mrs. Gore, Mrs. Marsh, Mrs. Bray, Mrs. Henry Wood, and Mrs. Oliphant as well. The victorian Era is highly indebted to Victorian Women Novelists which has been above mentioned.

Are you struggling to keep up with your English Literature Coursework? Do you need detailed, customized notes to help you better understand the texts you’re studying? “Look no further! Our customized paid notes will help you achieve your study goals quickly.

– Varsha Singh

Victorian Women Novelist | Victorian era Women | 19th Century Women Novelist Read More »