My Last Duchess By Robert Browning

My Last Duchess By Robert Browning Analysis, & Dramatic Mononlogue

My Last Duchess By Robert Browning
My Last Duchess By Robert Browning


          My Last Duchess is probably Robert Browning’s most popular poem, which deals with Victorian social issues about the condition of women. It first appeared in 1842 in Dramatic Lyrics by the title Italy. Seven years later, the title was changed to “My Last Duchess” in 1849. The major reason for the fame of My Last Duchess is that it is probably the first example of Robert Browning’s dramatic monologue.

            The poem is about an Italian Duke, the Duke of Ferrara (also known as Alfonza II), who supposedly killed his first wife and is now planning another wedding to another woman. He displays a painting of his dead wife in his house and reveals it to a visitor. The poem explores the Duke’s, Obsessive Love.

About Robert Browning

          Robert Browning is a prolific Victorian- Era playwright. He is widely recognized as the master of Dramatic Monologue. A Dramatic Monologue is a type of poetry in which an imagined speaker addresses a silent listener, usually not the reader. Browning’s monologues present a different aspect of love and its intensity.

            Browning first major work Pauline is published in 1833. When he reads some poem by Elizabeth Barret, he falls in love with her without seeing her. His world-famous works included – Man and Woman, The Ring and The Book, Dramatic Personae, and Prospice.

Historical Background

            The poem was written during the Industrial Revolution when society was starting to see social mobility in terms of class as well as gender. Women were starting to demand equality. Before women have no legal rights, they would become the property of their husbands. The only way for a woman to gain status is through her husband. When Browning wrote this poem he had this thing in mind so through this poem he tried to explore the injustice of the male dominant society.

My Last Duchess As a Dramatic Monologue

          The Poem My Last Duchess is a dramatic monologue. It maintains the tradition of dramatic monologue and that is the presence of a speaker and the listener. The speaker in the poem is considered to be the Duke of Ferrara and the listener is the guest who comes to visit the Duke.

The important feature of the dramatic monologue is the abrupt beginning. The poem starts somewhere in the middle of the poem,

“That’s My Last Duchess Painted on the wall.”

            Another characteristic of the dramatic monologue in this poem is the psychological analysis of the Duke and Duchess. Robert Browning here successfully analysis Duke’s psychology and shows us that the Duke is an egocentric, possessive husband, a cruel and vengeful person, a proud aristocrat, a greedy bridegroom, and an alienated person. He loves artwork more than humans.


            However, the poem throws insight into social realism as a dramatic monologue. The Victorian era was a class-conscious society and especially women were bounded to certain conventional norms.

            Moreover, Browning sketches the character of the Duchess through a dramatic monologue. The Duke tells his guests that Duchess liked everything and everyone she saw which reflects that she was sleeping around with another man. He even further argues that she gives an equal amount of smiles to another man who passes her and he tries to sketch her as an immoral woman.

Structure and Form

          My Last Duchess by Robert Browning is a Dramatic Monologue written in five sections. The poem is written mostly in iambic pentameter. This means that the lines contain five sets of two beats, the first of which is unstressed and the second of which of is stressed. There are a few examples of trochee and other stresses.

Themes Of The My Last Duchess

  1. The role of women in society and relationship
  2. Deception.
  3. Ownership, Power, Cruelty, Greed, and Jealousy.
  4. Control Over A Partner and Dominance in a relationship.
  5. Art and Influence.

Setting Of The Poem

          The poem is set in the Italian town of Ferrara during the Renaissance period. The Duke who is also the speaker is supposedly Alfonso the second Alfonso is the fifth Duke of Ferrar and he lived during the 16th century. The Duchess is considered to be Lucrezia de Medici, the Wife of Alfonso.

Analysis Of The Poem

          In the opening lines of the poem, the speaker talks about His Last Duchess. The speaker is a Duke and he is addressing an unknown or silent listener. The Duke points towards the painting of his Duchess on the wall who is dead now. The picture of the Duchess is so beautifully painted that the speaker says it seems that she is standing alive in front of him.

The Duke praises the painting and calls it a masterpiece. He also tells the listener about the artist or the painter who produced this amazing piece of wonder. He says that Fra Pandolf worked hard and it took him an entire day to complete it and give it a realistic effect. The painting seems as if the Duchess is alive and standing in front of the Duke.

            The Duke then invites the listener to sit down and focus on the beauty of the painting. He asks him to examine the painting and admire its art.

             The Duke tells the listener that he told him the name of the painter because everyone who looks at this painting, wants to know about the person who produced this piece of art. The People or the stranger who see this painting, also want to question how the painter portrayed so much depth and passion on the face of the Duchess and gave her expressions that look absolutely real. The Duke is only allowed to draw the curtain back that hangs over the painting. It means that only Duke can see this painting or show it to anyone else if he wants.

            He further tells the listener that he is not the first one who is surprised to see this beautiful art.

            The Duke keeps on addressing his silent listener and this time he calls him Sir. He explains the expression of the Duchess in the painting and tells the listener that the smile and the blush that he can see on her cheeks were not because of her husband’s presence. The Duchess was not happy because the Duke was around. Something else was the reason behind the Duchess’s Joy and Duke seemed jealous of these things because he always wanted her to have these expressions of joy on her face just for her husband.

            The Duke starts guessing the reason behind the Duchess’s happiness. He suggests that maybe she smiled because Fra Pandolf praised her beauty. Duke criticizes his Duchess saying that she thought that courtesy or polite comments are enough to make her happy. It shows that the Duke didn’t want her to be happy or blush. On trivial compliments of everyone. He only wanted her to be happy in her husband’s presence or on his compliment.

             The Duke next explains the nature of his late Duchess to the listener. He says that the Duchess had a gentle heart, she liked and praised everything that she looked at. In short, it was very easy for everyone to make her happy or to impress her with anything. In these lines, the Duke is not praising the Duchess but he is criticizing her.

            The above lines give the idea that Duchess was very kind and down to earth but she was not what the Duke wanted his wife to be.

            Next, the Duke calls his listener Sir and tells him further about the behavior of his Duchess. He tells if he brought her any present, brooch, or jewelry that she could wear on her chest, she used to smile or thanked him for the present but she became equally happy on trivial things like watching the sun, setting in the west, the branch of cherries, that some random fool brings for her from the orchard or the white mule on which she rode around the terrace.

Duke further tells him that she praised all these things equally or blushed in a similar way each time. It shows that though the Duke expected a special response from his wife yet the Duchess treated everything equally. Now it is clear that the Duke wanted his Duchess to pay special attention to him but she treated him equally and always responded to him just as she used to respond to any other common person or thing.

            The Duke then says that she used to thank men. He had no problem with the Duchess thanking everyone but he didn’t like her way to do that. The Duke gave her nine hundred years old family names and prestige. He gave her a status by making her his Duchess that she never had before marrying the Duke but she didn’t even value this gift of his superior to any other minor thing done for her by any common person. There was a relationship gap between the Duke and the Duchess, this is why he never told her anything about her behavior.

            The Duke tells the listener that he admits his Duchess was always nice to him. She treated him well. Then the Duke again asks the question who passed her without receiving the same smile? There was nothing special in her smile for Duke. The Duke admits that he couldn’t bear it more so he gave commands against his own Duchess and as a result, all her smiles stopped. It gives the idea that he gave commands to end her life so that she could no longer be able to smile.

            The Duke then ends his victory and again points towards the beautiful portrait saying that now there she stands and it looks like she is alive. Duke asks listeners to stand up and follow him so that they can go and meet other guests. The Duke then starts talking about the listener’s master “Count”.

            The Duke expects the count to give the dowry of her daughter as much as he demands. It suggests that the Duke is now getting married again to the daughter of the count and he talks to the servant to him about the matter of dowry.

            The Duke ends his discussion and they start going down, while on their way the Duke draws the attention of the servant toward another beautiful piece of art in his gallery. He points towards the statue of the God Neptune who is shown taming his sea horse. The Duke also tells the servant about the artist who made it. He tells him that Claus of Innsbruck made this statue with bronze, especially for him.


            Thus, Robert Browning’s poem My Last Duchess is a haunting portrayal of the destructive nature of power, jealousy, and possessiveness. The Duke’s words and actions reveal, a man consumed with the desire for control and power over others, ultimately leading to the destruction of his wife. Although the final line of the poem,

“Notice Neptune, though Taming a sea horse, thought a rarity
 which clause of Innsbruck cast in Brozne for me!”

 These lines are chilling reminders of the Duke’s cold and calculating nature.

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The Blood Knot By Athol Fugard

The Blood Knot By Athol Fugard | Blood Knot Summary

The Blood Knot By Athol Fugard
The Blood Knot By Athol Fugard


            The play The Blood Knot is written by Athol Fugard during South Africa’s Apartheid era of institutionalized racism and segregation. Apartheid was a system for keeping white and non-white people separated that was used in South Africa from 1948 to 1994, it was also known as racial segregation. It is written by the greatest South African playwright Athol Fugard. It is the story of two half-brothers who shares the same mother but a different father. It was written in the early 1960s and first performed in 1961 but after the first performance South African authors banned it. Through this play, Fugard showed his hatred and dissatisfaction with the world in which whites were segregated from non-whites.

About Athol Fugard

          Arnold Fugard Lannigan Fugard commonly known as Athol Fugard is a South African Playwright, novelist, actor, and director widely regarded as South Africa’s greatest playwright. He has written more than 30 plays. He gained international attention from a play called The Blood Knot. He often writes on the subject of South African apartheid. His plays include – The Cell Hello and Goodbye, Valley Song, Victory, My Children My Africa, The Shadow and Hummingbird, The Road to Mecca, and others. His plays have garnered the Tony Award, New York Drama Critics Circle Award, Drama Dok Award, and many more. Even Today he pens insightful plays addressing modern inequality.

Multi racially in Blood Knot

            The play is against the system of apartheid and racial segregation in South Africa. Even after independence in 1948, the all-white government continued to enforce the system of segregation called apartheid. The majority of South African, who were nonwhites were forced to live in areas separate from the white and use separate public facilities. Pass Laws required non-whites to carry documents authorizing their presence in restricted areas 80% Country’s Land for the white minority.

            Additionally, the Population Registration Act of 1950 classified all south African by race as

  • Bantu (Black Africans)
  • Colored (Mixed race)
  • White
  • Asian (India & Pakistan)

In some cases, the legislation split families with parents classified as white and their children classified as colored. Or as we find in the play, the two brothers fall into different categories despite their blood knot, it speaks of a tangled relationship and the traumas of the two brothers.

In South Africa in 1960, police opened fire on a group of black protestors, killing sixty-nine of them. This event marks the beginning of the ongoing struggle of South African blacks for equality. In the wave of violence between police and black protestors, more than two thousand people have been killed.

Living in such conditions Athol  Fugard certainly has been touched by the racial issues which are at the root of this death. The Blood Knot shows his concern towards the system of racial segregation.

About the title

    So the title of The Blood Knot is apt and absolutely appropriate. Both the brother have different skin tones one is white and another is dark tone. Both have different rights given by the African Government according to racism segregation. The fact that blood is thicker than water is exemplified in their manifestation of love and concern for each other.

Themes of The Blood Knot


Athol Fugard wrote this play as a protest against the injustice of racism. Both the main character of the play Zachariah and Morris are saddened by the insults, injury, and inhumanity they have to face in their lives.


Morris being a black man in white skin speaks of a doubleness of racial identity. Morris can actually pass off as a white man. Morris apparently left Zachariah to find a better life for himself as a white-skinned person. But he was torn between his skin color and his blood ties. So there is a tension of his double consciousness in Morris as the black man with light skin.


The playwright highlights the pitiable conditions of the blacks by portraying their surroundings and their home. As a laborer, Zachariah lives in one room in a town outside Port Elizabeth. Morris hopes to extricate themselves from this grinding poverty and slavery and dreams of having a farm on their own. Unfortunately at the end of the play having spent all their savings on clothes and other things they are left in a worse condition of having nothing but each other.


 From the beginning of the play, we find. Morris to be bound to his brother. Zachariah the fact that blood is thicker than water is exemplified in their manifestation of love, care, and concern for each other.

Blood Knot Play Analysis

            The play has only two characters – half-brothers Morris and Zachariah share the same mother, who is black. However, because Morris’s father is white, his skin is far lighter than his brothers allowing him to pass for a white man. During the Apartheid era an authoritarian leadership rooted in white supremacy governed South Africa. Consequently, the white minority in power dominate the nation’s black majority politically, and economically non-white ethnic groups were segregated into poorer neighborhoods and designed franchised politically.

            Having lived for a few years as a white man, Morris returns to the “colored” section of the part of Elizabeth to live with Zachariah. Together, they inhabit a small run-down shack that Morris maintains while Zachariah works as a gatekeeper at a park. His job is to prevent black people from entering the park. He comes back every evening with foot sores from standing for long hours.

Morris does not want to work in the predominantly black neighborhood of part Elizabeth because, as a man who looks white, he fears he will not fit in. He is content to keep the house, cook the meals, prepare hot water for Zach, and also save money for their future- to buy a small farm for themselves and live on their own.

            Zachariah carries on a pen pal relationship with a white girl who does not know he is black. While Zachariah believes he and they can have a real in-person relationship. Morris is far more cynical about the matter. In fact, the very earliest Apartheid laws passed by South Africa were the prohibition of mixed marriage acts, the latter of which barred sexual relations of any kind between two different races. Morris is especially alarmed when he learns that the girl’s brother is a police officer.

            When the girl insists on visiting port Elizabeth and meeting Zachariah in person, Morris convinces his brother that she will be horrified when she discovers he is a black man. Zachariah allows Morris to pose as him to mitigate the risk of being arrested by the girl’s brother.

            In preparation for the rendezvous, Morris buys the type of clothes that a white man is likely to wear, spending the significant portion of the money Zachariah had earned to put to words their dream to buy a farm.

            In a new letter, the girl explains that she has changed her mind and she will not visit part Elizabeth. The two-man release from fear. In the end, Morris winds up his old alarm clock, the one used throughout the play to remind him of tests such as fixing Zachariah’s footbath, preparing supper, or going to see, Morris says: “You see, we’re tied together, Zach. It’s what they call the blood knot the bond between brothers.”


            Thus, Athol Fugard’s play The Blood Knot explores the themes of race, identity, poverty, and brotherhood through the story of two half-brothers living in South Africa during the Apartheid era. Fugard’s portrayal of the brother’s poverty and struggle for survival serves as a powerful reminder of the devastating effects of inequality and segregation. Despite their hardships, however, Morris and Zachariah’s bond as brothers remains unbreakable, highlighting the importance of familial love and support in times of hardship. 

Overall, The Blood Knot is a powerful and thought-provoking play that reminds us of the ongoing struggle for racial justice and equality in South Africa and around the world.

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Kanthapura By Raja Rao

Kanthapura By Raja Rao | Kanthapura Summary & Analysis

Kanthapura By Raja Rao
Kanthapura By Raja Rao


            Kanthapura is the first major Indian novel in English which is written by Raja Rao. It was written during the time of AZADI in 1933. The novel recounts the rise of the Gandhian nationalist movement in a small south Indian village of the same name. This is Raja Rao’s well-known and acclaimed, book and primarily serves as a critique of the traditional Indian caste system. The novel is written in 1937 and published in 1938.

About Raja Rao

            Raja Rao was an Indian American novelist and short story writer from 20th-century India. He wrote a galaxy of novels and short stories on issues. Indian culture, caste system, and freedom struggle. He won several Indian height honors such as The Padma Bhusan in 1969. The Sahitya Akademi Award in 1997 and Padma Vibhushan in 2007. Among his famous writings included: The Serpent and the Rope, Kanthapura, The Cat and Shakespeare, On the Ganga Ghat, and The Meaning of India.

Significance of the title

          The title Kanthapura is apt and suggestive because the novel is about a south Indian village named Kanthapura and the whole story of this novel moves around the people and the community of the village named Kanthapura. It is a village in Mysore in the Province of Kara. It is situated in the valley of Himavathy. There it lies, “Curled up like a Child on its mother’s lap.”

            Kanthapura is not dealing with the life of any individual hero. It is only the story of Moorthy but of the masses of the village, of the suffering of their exile. Hence if there is any hero in the novel it is Kanthapura itself and its people.

The theme of the Novel Kanthapura

Gandhian Novel

                            Kanthapura is a Ganhian novel. We cannot find Gandhi himself in the novel but his character is there in the protagonist of the novel Moorthy. He was taking part in the struggle for freedom. He made efforts to unite people as Gandhi did.

Gandhi’s thoughts and their impact 

                                           Gandhian philosophy is introduced into the novel through Morthy. He was attracted by Gandhi’s idea of making cotton yarn on a spinning wheel and wearing clothes spun and woven by their hands. They did not permit foreign clothes. The villagers made their own song for Gandhi which describes the influence of Gandhi on them.

Freedom struggle for India

The characters of the novel strive for freedom. They fought against the Britishers non-violently.


The village has a structure of castes. The novel defines if a Brahmin goes to Pariaha’s house. He had a bath after returning.

Epic touch or Mythological theme

                  The novel has the quality of epic. The plot of the novel has been symbolically compared with Ramayana. Gandhi ji an avatar of Rama sent from heaven to rescue Sita (India.) from the Britishers (Ravana).

 Focusing on the female condition

          In Kanthapura, we find many women the example Rangamma, Achakka, and Ratna. Rangamma is one of the few educated women in the village. She is influenced by Gandhian Philosophy and becomes a source of knowledge and inspiration for the women of the village. Achakka is one of the main characters of the novel. She is the narrator of the novel. Ratna is one of the characters of the novel. She is fifteen years old and windowed. She is too inspired by Gandhian philosophy.

Caste Division 

                      There is a clear-cut caste division in the village of Kanthapura. The houses in this village are divided into five quarters,

Brahmin quarters
◽Potters’ quarters
◽Weavers’ quarters
◽Pariahs’ quarters
◽Sudras quarters

 The upper-class people keep a distance from the Sudra and the Pariah quarters. The narrator Achakka also believes in the caste division.

Summary Of Kanthapura novel

Kanthapura is narrated in the form of Purana or an old manuscript by an old woman of the village, Achakka. She is an old Brahmin woman with Encyclopedic knowledge about everyone in the village

            In the village, Knathapura, the caste system is strict and the village is run primarily by the high caste Brahmins, while the lowest caste is known as Pariahs. The villagers believe they are protected by a local deity named Kenchamna. One Brahmin man named “Moorthy” becomes an activist or a follower of Gandhi ji. He convinces various villagers to start spinning their wool and weaving their Khadi Clothes. Since Gandhi believes that foreign goods impoverished India.

            A loincloth-wearing Brahmin Bhatta despises Gandhism for his business runs on high-interest loans to small farmers, who sell their rice to city people. Bhatta proposes establishing a Brahmin Party to fight Moorthy’s spreading Gandhism and wins the support of many villagers most notable, the rambling Waterfall Venkamma the priest Temple Rangappa and his Lakshama—Moorthy’s own mother Narsamma, and his own wife Chinnamma.

            Moorthy is soon excommunicated by the village priest. Moorthy’s mother dies, her health is impacted by the shame, she feels over her son’s ex-communication and Moorthy winds up living with Rangamma, an educated and politically active window. The Brahmin clerks of a local coffee estate invite Moorthy to speak at their meeting, hoping to create a greater awareness of Gandhian teachings among the local lower-Caste laborers. However, when he arrives, the local policeman, Bade khan beats him and attempts to scare him off.

The Laborers attempt to stand up for Moorthy and beat the policeman, but they are thrown out of the estate for this. A unit of Gandhi’s independence committee is formed in Kanthapura, and Moorthy becomes their leader.

            Moorthy is blamed by the British government for instigating violence and is arrested. While the committee volunteers to pay his bail, Moorthy refused their money and spends the next three months in prison. While he is locked away the women of Kanthapura take the reins and form a volunteer corps under Rangamma’s leadership. She motivates the women by telling them stories of strong women from Indian history.

Although they face much hardship and violence from the police and the British army, culminating in the village being burned, they remain loyal to Gandhi’s ideals. When Moorthy is released from prison, he is greeted as a hero by the village which is now united across caste lines. Moorthy and the rest of the town took toward the future and continue their fight for independence.

            In the end, Kanthapura is destroyed but not defeated. This is chiefly due to their following the teaching of Mahatma Gandhi and the Leadership provided by Moorthy.


Thus, Raja Rao Kanthapura is one of the finest novels of the mid-twentieth century in India. It is the story of how Gandhi’s struggle for independence from the British came to the typical village of Kanthapura in South India. Kanthapura is a picture of India. Raja Rao is very much influenced by Gandhian thoughts. The theme of the novel is the Freedom Struggle of India.

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Aristotle Poetics

Poetics By Aristotle | Aristotle Poetics Summary | Aristotle poetics tragedy

Aristotle Poetics
Aristotle Poetics


          Poetics is one of the most important works of ancient Aristotle discusses and analyses the concept and art of creating poetry. The exact origins of Aristotle’s poetics are not known, but researchers believe that it was composed around 330 BCE and was preserved primarily as notes by Aristotle’s students. Aristotle here defines art and also suggests the criteria for evaluating the quality of given work of art. It is a 26-chaptered treatise on poetry. Poetics discusses the different kinds of poetry, the structure of a good poem, and the division of a poem into its components.The Poetics was lost to the Western world for a long time.

            For Aristotle poetry is an act of imitation, but it is different from the mere mimicking of sound. Poet is a creator and he creates something new through poetry. Aristotle defines poetry as a medium of imitation that represent duplicate life through character emotion and action. He defines poetry very broadly; including epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry, and even some kind of music.

About Aristotle

            Aristotle was a philosopher and polymath from Greece. He moved to Plato’s Academy when he was 18. His teacher was Plato and he was the teacher of Alexander the Great. Aristotle composed most of his works between 335 and 323 BC, while he was in Athens. He had an amazing, passion for learning and possessed marvelous knowledge of the multi-disciplines. His most important treaties include – Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul, and Poetic. It is believed that his work if complied can be considered as a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge. Aristotle is considered a genuine scientist. Aristotle’s work on aesthetics consists of Poetics, Politics, and Rhetoric.

Aristotle’s Analysis of Tragedy

          Aristotle considers tragedy as the most refined version of poetry that deals with the imitation of lofty matters. Sophocles, another ancient Greek tragedian is considered by Aristotle as the master of Tragic play. According to Aristotle Tragedy is an act of imitation, and he defines Tragedy as “The imitation of an Action”. Thus according to Aristotle, there are seven characteristic features of a Tragedy.

  • It is mimetic.
  • It is serious.
  • It tells a full story of an appropriate length
  • It contains rhythm and harmony.
  • Rhythm and harmony occur in different combinations in different parts of the tragedy.
  • It is performed rather than narrated.
  • It aroused feelings of pity and fear.

            Aristotle observes six components that constitute a successful tragedy Plot, Character, Thought, Diction, Song, and Spectacle.


            Plot is the soul of tragedy. It is the first principle and the most essential feature of a tragedy because the action is the most significant tragedy. There can be tragedy without character or music or dance, but there cannot be tragedy without an action plot in the arrangement incident. Following are the specification of a successful plot of a tragedy: – Completeness, magnitude, unity, determination, structure, and universality.

  • Completeness of the plot means the plot must be A Whole with a beginning, middle, and end.
  • The Magnitude of the plot refers to the length. It should be complex, compact, and comprehensive.
  • Unity in the plot refers to the Unity of Action.
  • Well Determinate Structure of the plot means the effective linking of the various events and incidents in the plot with remarkable coherence.
  • The Universality of the plot refers to the fact that whatever is imitated or shown in the tragedy should be closer to real life.


          Character comes of second importance next to Plot in a tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action, thought, or emotion. Aristotle explains four qualities of the character of the tragic hero:

  • The tragic hero should be well renowned and prosperous.
  • He should be courageous and dear to everyone.
  • He should be true to life that any one of the audience should be able to identify himself or herself.
  • The hero should be a consistent person.

            The Tragic flaw in the Character is known as Hamartia.


            The third important component of a tragic play is thought. Thought is important because actions spring out from thought. The cathartic effect of the tragic play by arousing the feeling of pity and fear is ultimately the product of thought.


            Diction takes the 4th place in the sequence of the importance of the components that constitute a tragedy. Diction is in the material arrangement of worlds in the play. The nature, quality type, and aptness of vocabulary used in a tragedy should be proper and appropriate to the character and plot of the tragedy.


            Aristotle calls the musical elements of the chorus a song or melody. The Song is a splendid aspect of a tragic play.


            Spectacle is the last component of a tragic play. It is of the lowest importance because it has very little to do with literature. The poet who creates an artistic work gives primary attention to the inner structure of the work.

Four Unique components of Tragedy

            There are four specific components in addition to the above-mentioned ones that make the tragedy a unique work of art. They are Anagnorisis (protagonist realize their own tragic flaw), Hamartia (error of Judgement), Peripeteia (Sudden reversal of fortune), and Catharsis (a medical term that means purgation).


            In the Poetic Aristotle gives more importance to Tragedy than comedy and history. In it, he writes about the type, structure length of tragedy, plot, and about unities of the poet.

            Thus now we can say that Poetics is an important work in the history of literary Criticism. I contributed a lot to the development of English Literature.

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